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Factors Affecting Biodiversity

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by

Anna Savage

on 22 January 2014

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Transcript of Factors Affecting Biodiversity

Coral Reefs
Biodiversity
Factors Affecting Biodiversity
Threats to Biodiversity
Physical
Natural Hazard
El Nino
Weather processes
Invasive Species
“An alien species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm or harm to human health..."
Tundra
Key Words
TEMPERATURE: affects the energy given to enzymes which aid the sustaining of life.
PRECIPITATION
STRUCTURE: climate conditions at the equator means that we expect a rich variation. (Desert, high levels of biodiversity despite lack of water.)
SUNLIGHT
WIND
ENDEMISM: The high the number of unique species the higher the level of biodiveristy.
RELIEF
Physical
OVER EXPLOITATION: taking of natural resources.
INVASIVE SPECIES: species that are not native but transported through human activity.
POLLUTION
CLIMATE CHANGE
HABITAT CHANGE: human activity changing the area and so disturbs the ecosystem
Human
Human
Resource exploitation
Enhanced greenhouse effect
Habitat change
Deforestation
Habitat removal
Pollution
Eutrification
Invasive species
Alien species
Nile Perch
Lake Victoria
East Africa
Introduced in the 50s and 60s due to commercial value.
Population explosion in the 80s.
Reduced density of native cichlid fish a thousand fold.
Estimated 200 species driven to extinction.
Led to an increase in algae (+ human cash farming flowers)
HUMAN CAUSE
The Cane Toad
Northern Queensland
Introduced in the 30s to protect sugar cane.
Bred quickly and spread across North East Australia.
3000 per square kilometer at times.
Feeds on faeces and so spreads diseases such as Salmonella.
There are now festivals dedicated to the eradication of this pest.
Trying to use a virus to specifically target the creatures.
HUMAN CAUSE
African Honeybees
South and Central America
Imported into Brazil as part of an experiment to produce a successful strain in the area.
Some of the queens escaped and so this was an accidental invasive species.
This breed bred with local bees producing an aggressive strain that quickly spread.
Victims were experiencing 10x more stings.
Spread was at 400km per year across the continent.
Now seen in North America and only the cold climate of Canada has prevented them spreading further.
HUMAN CAUSE
Zebra Mussels
International
Large ships often take large quantities of water, flora and forna and then deposit it later this is known as
ballasting
.
First recorded intrusion was North America in 1988.
The attach themselves to solid objects.
Under the right conditions, they can multiply rapidly.
The can change the dynamics of the eco system and dynamic through consuming large amounts of phytoplankton.
HUMAN CAUSE
The Galapagos
Escalation in population and tourism has led to an increase in invasive species.
The introduction of mosquitoes has become a severe issue due to possible fatalities.
Animals brought by settlers have had a disastrous impact.
Cat's for example are very successful predators and goats have been out competing the tortoise.
Up to 60% of 180 plant species native to the area are considered threatened.
2007, 55/490 insect species considered to be at high risk.
HUMAN CAUSE
Biodiversity: The variety of all forms of life on Earth.
Biome: A large global ecosystem.
Biodiversity Hotspot: Areas with high concentrations of biodiversity that's under threat.
Pivitol Area: High concentration of hotspots are important due to variety.
Biomass: The total weight of living matter per unit.
Invasive Species: Species which move out of their natural habitat and colonize new areas due to human activity.
Pioneer Species: 1st plant to inhabit an area.
Sere: A level of succession.
Climax Community: End stage of succession.

Conditions
Usually form 30 degrees north and south of the equator.
Particularly in the Pacific due to the heat.
Areas with cold ocean currents (off the coast of Peru) there is a lack of reefs.
Grow between 23-29 degrees.
Salty and clear water for light.
Depth 70m.
Importance
Home to 4000 types f fish, 800 hard corals.
Possible cures for arthritis and human bacterial infections and viruses.
Florida tourism = $7B.
Fishing in the US = $100M.
1/2 of the world's population benefit from coral reefs.
Importance
Home to 4000 types f fish, 800 hard corals.
Possible cures for arthritis and human bacterial infections and viruses.
Florida tourism = $7B.
Fishing in the US = $100M.
1/2 of the world's population benefit from coral reefs.
Threats
Hurricane: can flatten area.
Tide: can bleach the coral.
Sea temp: El Nino can increase temp and so affect function.
Predators: they prey on the soft tissue of the coral polyps.
Sea stars: crawl over the reefs consuming living coral tissue.
Eutriphication: causes build up of algae.
Oil spills: can chock the coral and prevent sunlight penetrating waters.
Litter: pollute waters and so unbalances ecosystem.
Recreational activities: disrupt the running of the ecosystem.
Human
Physical
Case Studies Bit
South West Asia: more than 80% at risk due to coastal development and fishing pressures.
America: almost all the reefs in Florida are in danger due to fertilizer run off.
Caribbean: 2/3 of reefs in jeopardy.
6M tonnes of fish taken per year.
10% of the world's coral reefs are dead.
Maui, Hawaii
1/3 of corals and 1/4 of all other marine creature are found nowhere else in the world.
In the last 10 years, reefs have declined by 35%.
East Maui, exposed to NW trade winds and swells so vulnerable to erosion.
However, Opihi Patnership is trying to team local knowledge with cutting edge science to protect the area.
So good that other areas are wanting to copy approach.
Maui, Hawaii
Wakatobi National Park, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.
1996: 3.4M acres of islands and waters were declared as the national park.
2003: mass damage was recorded due to fishing pressures and bleaching.
The Nature Conservancy and World Wildlife Fund have been working with the authorities to redesign the management.
Local forum to engourage public participation.
Extensive work with the local government to encourage a shared management scheme.
ANWR
19M acres.
180 bird species, 45 mammalian species, and 36 species of fish.
200 species of wildlife.
Over 120,000 Caribou.
Last 5% of Alaska's North Slope that has not been developed for oil exploration.
Low lying vegetation to avoid strong winds.
Permafrost mean most of the soil is water logged, shallow, infertile and acidic.
ANWR
19M acres.
180 bird species, 45 mammalian species, and 36 species of fish.
200 species of wildlife.
Over 120,000 Caribou.
Last 5% of Alaska's North Slope that has not been developed for oil exploration.
Low lying vegetation to avoid strong winds.
Permafrost mean most of the soil is water logged, shallow, infertile and acidic.
Development
+ 75% of Alaskans support the idea.
- Cetrtain tribes (Gwitch'n) are heavily opposed to the idea.
+ Alaska and USA would benefit from the oil (royalties, taxes, lease rentals.)
+ 250,000-735,000 jobs creates.
+16B barrels equates to 30 years worth of Middle East imports.
+Less expensive, 60% of US oil imported.
+Us and ME wouldn't have to trade and so ease tensions.

+ Only 8% of the total ANWR is being considered for exploration.
- The US Fish and Wildlife services concluded there would be a huge displacement of the Pordepine River Caribou herd.
Polar bears sensitive to change. Females forced to abandon their dens and so cubs die off.
- snow geese disrupted by helicopters 4M away.
Exon Valdez oil spill (1989). Risk of oil spills.
SOCIAL
ECONOMIC
ENVIRONMENTAL
Mangroves
Location
Inter tidal areas (between high and low tide.)
Eusturay mouths.
Tropical and subtropical areas.
Africa, Australia, Asia, Americas.
Structure
Vegetation
Varies from shrubs to 40M trees.
Prop roots provide support for water logged ground.
Pheumatophones erect roots which rise from soil or water to breathe in water and air through lenticles.
Zonation
Red mangorves closest to the coast protect inland areas.
Black mangroves further inland.
White/grey mangroves unable to survice water logging.
Productivity
Almost as productive as tropical rainforest.
Mud acts as a Nursery to species.
Shrimp Farming, Thailand
1970s-90s expanded greatly, Thai government encouraged growth.
Japan (250,000) USA (500,000) imported tonnes in 2003.
Improved infrastructure and reduced migration to Bangkok.
Farms produce much effluent which harms surrounding flora and forna.
Surrounding waters experience salination.
This has led to a reduction in biodiversity.
Goods
Timbre
Fish
Tourism
Services
Climate regulation
Flood/coastal protection
Coral reef protection
Breeding and Nurseries
Pollution control
Biodiversity
Carbon sequestration
Natural hazard protection
Nutrient cycling
Good and Services
Sundra Shelf Mangroves
Borneo, east coast of Sumatra.
37,400 km2
Wetlands hotspot.
Biologically diverse but not high levels of endemic species.
5 major types of mangroves using different soils.
Over 250 bird species, transient and migrant.
Full transcript