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Transcript of Classroom Assessment
Scoring criteria Assessment types
Formal and informal assessment
Criterion and norm-referenced tests
Formative and Summative assessments Reliability
Bias Design Classroom Assessments Achievement Gap “Inside the Black Box—Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment”
Paul Black and Dylan William
Balanced Classroom Assessment Test Building Selected response items
Constructed response items
Looking at DATA
What are the challenges related to assessment and data? Mining it (gathering)
Analyzing it (making meaning)
Using it (taking decisive action) Incredible Constructed Response
Revising assessment items DataWise Assessment for Learning
Techniques It's not the test itself that is valid, it's the conclusion we reach from the students performence Three Kinds of Validity Evidence Criterion-Related Evidence
Content-Related Evidence Sees if tests actually predict what they were intended to predict Covers all forms of evidence Reflects what the test is supposed to represent Does it stay the same? Stability Reliability
Internal Consistency Reliability Does the student have the same score in the same test taken twice? Does the student have a similar score on two different tests? Do all of the test items seem to be doing the same kind of measuring? Something that blocks you from making a fair judgment 3 steps
1.Determine instructional decisions to be made
2. Identify test base inferences to support those decisions
3.Build tests to yield valid test based inferences Two Test Types
1. Selected Response
2. Constructed Response Binary choice items
right and wrong
correct and incorrect
accurate or inaccurate
avoid negative statements, never use double negatives, make choices in pairs Matching Items
Premises on the Left
Responses on the Right
Use brief lists
Use homogeneous lists
Include more responses than premises
List in a logical order
Describe basis for matching Multiple Choice Items
Stem is the question
Alternatives or options are the possible answers
Question in the problem must be self-contained
Avoid negatively stated stems
Make each possible answer gramatically correct Short answer Items
Requires students to supply a word or phrase Choose Direct Questions
Structure an Item so it seeks a brief, unique response
Place response blanks at the end of incomplete statements
Restrict number of blanks to one or two
Students create a short paper describing
the information you are asking for Structure items so that the students task is clear
Specify the point value, response-length and time allowed
Dont make questions optional A scoring guide that helps those who score students responses Reprehensible Rubric Three Kinds of Reliability Three kinds
1. Task Specific – way too specific
2. Hypergeneral – way too general
3. Dysfunctional detailed – way too detailed Rubric
Skill-focused Rubric The kind you want! A handful of criteria
Reflects something teachable
Task to be performed by students in real life.
A collection of one’s work.
Collect and evaluate student’s ongoing
work for the purpose of improving the skill
they need. The value of affective assessment Helps students form an optimistic outlook on learning
Helps teachers teach more effectively
The nature of students’ in-school assessed affect
Students’ affect measured during school > can be highly predictive of > Students’ subsequent behavior. Which Affect Should Teachers Assess?
Non-convtroversial attitudes, interest, and value.
Attitude targets- e.g. positive attitudes toward learning.
Interest target – e.g. intrest in specific school subject.
Value target – e.g. honesty, integrity, and justice. The achievement gap is the area in between proficient or above average students are scoring and the lowest below average students.
It shows the difference between the students who have learned the most and the students who have learned the least.
We started seeing achievement gaps around the advent of standardized testing. It was then realized that kids from certain backgrounds were not learning as much, as well, nor were they being successful in their education. What is AYP AYP is Adequate yearly progress. It shows that if the students of progressed in their education that year at an expected rate or goal. It measures if the students learned enough that year, got a quality education and many other factors.
How does AYP relate to the achievement gap? In the achievement gap, it is used to see if the schools are doing a good enough job at teaching their students. Schools who are at the low end of the achievement gap will not progress as much that year as the schools who are on the higher end of the achievement gap.
What can educators do to close/narrow the gap? Offer every student the same opportunity.
Give chances for discussion groups, reading groups as well as focus groups to get the students involved in a learning community.
Create a stimulating learning environment with much variety.
Try to keep the classroom as active as possible.
Try to keep away from a rigorous routine in order to keep the students stimulated and feeling bored.
Make the students want to learn by sparking their curiosity and making learning fun and interesting.
The article discusses that the formative assessment as a beneficial tool for an effective teaching.
In order to improve formative assessment, teachers and students should have a clear understanding for the learning functions. Summative Assessment It is the most common way of assessment that teachers use so students do not become users of assessment. Formative Assessment Giving students the chance to be involved in their learning and use self-assessment. Students will be more motivated to learn and responsible for their own learning. Also, using the students’ results in order to adjust teaching and learning is very important. Dylan Wiliam Video He teaches that teachers should lead the discussion in the classroom.
Students should learn from each other as much as from the teacher.
Encourages open classroom discussion
Gets away from I-R-E
Basketball instead of Ping Pong. A guide that assist teachers to develop assessments. Determines Learning Goals
Measures students level of comprehension
Uses different question types
Recipe for Assessment How Tests Can Clarify the Curriculum
Show what needs to be taught more.
Shows what teaching methods work best.
What units are review.
What units need more thourough teaching.
What pace students are learning at.
How advanced the material can be. Learning through Creating the Test
Students write main points they learned.
Teacher leads class in coming up with learning points.
Teacher reminds students how they learned each point.
Teacher mentions the test design.
Class divided into groups to create questions for test. 2 3 1 Technique #1- Wait Time Just after asking a question, wait between 2-5 seconds before calling on someone to answer or to validate the student’s answer.
It gives the group time to think of an answer and not just the fast students. Hot seat / Popsicle Q & A Rather than having students raise their hands, the teacher chooses individuals to answer a question.
Students must always be accountable for an answer.
Rock the Vote Teacher gives an open-ended question and presents multiple answers.
Students vote on which one they think is correct.
Student achievement increases when we are clear what the learning goals are for each lesson Listen to what students may be telling you! Collect and Analyze Standardized Assessment Data
Statewide achievement tests
Used to evaluate public school students
Creates teacher accountability
Measures the school as well as the student
Determines if students are at a standard level Collecting Credible Classroom Evidence A post-test only data-gathering design A pre/post-test data gathering design A better source of evidence:
The split and switch data-gathering design Chose a skill
Chose your assessment type
Create two assessments
Create two test groups
Pretest, teach and post test
Compare data sets
Standardize Achievement Tests Any assessment device that is administered and scored in a pre-determined manner
Perceived to be an indicator of school quality
Schools that do well are rewarded
Determines if school was either successful or unsuccessful
Adds undue pressure on teachers
Much classroom time is devoted to preparation
MAP test analysis report Shows school code
Depth of knowledge
measures what the
students already know.
Aptitude tests shows
how much they have
learned. Thank you :)
EDCI 5596: Classroom Assessment
Dr. Linda Davidson Mohammed Alkathiri