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Professional School Counseling

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brittany johns

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Professional School Counseling

Professional School Counseling Some Back Ground Information American schoolchildren face things that have temporary and permanent impacts on them
Alcohol & other drug abuse
changing family patterns
poor self esteem
racial and ethnic tensions
crime and violence
teenage pregnancy
and explosion of knowledge School counselors, compressive guidance, and counseling problems help children and adolescents become better adjusted academically and developmentally while
Feeling safer,
having better relationships with teachers and peers
believing their education is relevant to their futures
having fewer problems in school
earning higher grades The ASCA National Model School counseling is now widely considered to be a comprehensive, developmental, programmatic component of K-12 public education. Some school counselors have struggled to prove their worth to superintendents, principals, teachers, students, and parents who sometimes have misunderstood what they do .
To over come this and focus on what activities school
counselors should be engaged in, the American
School Counselor Association published a national model for school counseling.
It defines what a school counselor is and clarifies the roles of school counselors for the profession and for the public. The ASCA National Model "encourages school counselors to think in terms of the expected results of what students should know and be able to do as a result of implementing a standards based comprehensive school counseling program". It does this through an interlocking lineage of four components: foundation (beliefs and philosophy, mission)
delivery system (guidance curriculum, individual student planning, responsive services, systems support)
management systems (agreements, advisory council, use of data, action plans, use of time, use of calendar)
accountability (results reports, school counselor performance standards, program audit). The ASCA National Model supports the mission of schools by promoting three main areas in the delivery system:
academic achievement
career planning
personal and social development The ASCA National Model embodies what is known as strength based school counseling
-emphasis on promoting evidence based interventions and practices that are proactive on the individual, group, and school levels.
-include a focus on student strengths, advocacy for students who lack resources and forming of partnerships with other professionals and families of children.
-this approach differs from deficit based counseling
-where the focus is on fixing a problem. Elementary school counseling The first elementary school counselors were employed in the late 1950s, elementary school counseling did not gain momentum until the 1960s
In 1964, Congress passed the National Defense Education Act Title V-A and counseling services were extended to include elementary school children Emphases and Roles The task that elementary school counselors regularly perform are:
implement effective classroom guidance
provide individual and small group counseling
assist students in identifying their skills and abilities
work with special populations
develop students career awareness
coordinate school, community, and business resources
consult with teachers and other professionals
communicate and exchange information with parents/guardians
participate in school improvement and interdisciplinary teams HELPING health
personal relationships
need to know
guidance of actions, behaviors, and consequences Prevention Elementary school counseling emphasizing the four Cs:
counseling services
coordination of activities
consultation with others
curriculum development Classroom guidance lessons are an efficient way for school counselors to inform student about school wide opportunities, distribute information, and address student needs.
Classroom guidance lessons are proactive and focus on prevention as well as promotion Elementary school counselors need to publicize who they are, what they do, and how and when they can help through orientation programs, classroom visits, or both Its also important to work with parents and the community when children are at risk for developing either low self concepts or antisocial attitudes
three primary subsystems:
the family
the school
the subsystem formed by the family and the school interaction multiple concurrent actions approach is when counselors access more than one set of services within the community at a time for example--
social services and learning disabilities specialists Prevention -Peer mediators are specially selected and trained students who serve the school and the counselor in positive and unique ways. They help students get to know one another, create an atmosphere of sharing and acceptance, provide opportunities for other students to resolve personal difficulties, and enhance the problem solving skills of the student
-Bullying is a subset of aggression with three components
a) intent to harm
c) a power imbalance between the bully and the target or victim
-antibullying efforts is when the counselor can serve as a catalyst, a consultant, and a change agent.
-forming a steering committee is an important step to take that involves teachers, administrators, and students to work as a team to combat bullying.
-psychoeducational drama allows students to indirectly experience many of the negative consequences of bullying in an impersonal not threatening way.
-positive adult role models for children emulate may be helpful too as a preventative measure along with systematically addressing negative influences such as parental physical discipline, negative peer models, lack of adult supervision, and neighborhood safety concerns. Prevention Peer Mediators are specially selected and train students who serve the school and the counselor in positive and unique ways. They may help students get to know one another, create an atmosphere of sharing and acceptance, provide opportunities for other students to resolve personal difficulties and enhance the problem solving skills of the students.

By meeting regularly in individual sessions with at risk children (those most likely to develop problems because of their backgrounds or present behavior), counselors can assess how well these children are functioning and what interventions, if any, might be helpful to them or significant others. In working with children and the topic of divorce, elementary school counselors can do much good on the preventative level.
Groups for children experiencing divorce have been found effective in reducing dysfunctional behaviors, especially if both the custodial and noncustodial parents are involved.

Small group counseling can also help students increase learning behaviors and narrow the gap between poor students of color, and students who have material and psychological advantages.

The school wide positive behavioral support program is a preventative program composed of five basic components:
-a leadership team
-a brief overriding school wide philosophy
-specific behavioral guidelines for each area of the school
-individual classroom guidelines
-specific strategies for students who need extra attention

a special form of SWPBS is to use a positive behavior support approach on a school wide basis where school counselors help school administrators define, teach, and acknowledge expected behaviors while applying clear consequences to inappropriate behaviors in specific areas of the school Remediation Remediation is the act of trying to make a situation right

Children's self esteem is related to their self concept, how they perceive themselves in a variety of areas, academically, physically, socially, and so forth.
Self esteem results from the comparison of oneself to others in a peer group.

Counselors must focus on helping low self esteem children who are at risk for failure, improve in the following areas: "Five C's of competency"
critical school academic competencies, self concept, communication skills, coping ability, and control

Needs assessments are structured surveys that focus on the systematic appraisal of the types, depths, and scope of problems in particular populations.
They fall into four main areas : school, family relations, relationships with others and the self. Play therapy is a specialized way of working with children that requires skill and training.
Play reconstruction when children symbolically reenact traumatic or puzzling experiences by repeating a significant pattern in play.
Counselors usually need a tote bag with consist of play materials that fall into one of three broad categories: real life toys, acting out or aggressive toys, and toys for creative expression or release.

Bibliotherapy is the use of books or media as aids to help children gain insight into their problems and find appropriate solutions.

Games are another way to work with elementary school children. They offer a safe relatively non threatening connection to children's problems. Middle school counseling More recent than elementary school counseling

Considered a more hybrid way to offer counseling services to students that didn't fit the emphasis given by elementary or high school counselors.

Middle school ranges from ages 10-14 and have grades 6-9
i) At this age, children are faces with bodily adjustments, peer pressure, academic demands at school, conflicting attitudes with their parents and many more issues
ii) Few middle school counselors conduct research experiments or publish their findings, so less is known about this age group than any other. The Gesell Institute of Child Development along with other child study centers have descriptions of what should be expected as far as cognitive, physical and emotional factors. Thornburg’s (1986) outline on the major physical, intellectual, and social development tasks

Most middle school counselors are aware of these

i)Becoming aware of increases physical changes
ii)Organizing knowledge and concepts into problem-solving strategies
iii)Making the transition from concrete to abstract symbols
iv)Learning new social and sex roles
v)Identifying with stereotypical role models
vi)Developing friendships
vii)Gaining a sense of independence
viii)Developing a sense of responsibility Elkind (1986) states middle school students also have to successfully face 3 stress situations
a)Type A stress situation foreseeable and avoidable
i)Not walking in a dangerous area at night
b)Type B stress situation neither foreseeable nor avoidable
i)Unexpected death
c)Type C stress situation foreseeable, but not avoidable
i)Going to the dentist They are more at risk for not successfully achieving developmental tasks because they tend to experience more anxiety than high school and elementary school children

a)Counselors helpful at this time because they can give opportunities for the child to experience themselves and their worlds in more creative ways

b)Counselors also help middle schoolers foster a sense of uniqueness and help them identify with common concerns
i)This helps middle schooler feel less restless and moody and counter influences by peers and the popular culture that suggest violence to be an acceptable solution to complex problems Middle school counseling seeks to correct the imbalance between the neglect of physical and social development because of the attention given to stimulating intellectual growth by focusing on total development
i)Counselors stress the process of transition involved in leaving childhood and entering adolescence along with growth and development
ii)Some activities to help achieve this are:
(1)Working with students individually and in groups
(2)Working with teachers and administrators
(3)Working in the community with education agencies, social services, and businesses
(4)Partnering with parents to address unique needs of specific children To more easily fulfill these roles, counselors develop programs in certain ways that have necessary capacities such as:
a)Including general information about developmental characteristics of middle schoolers and specific tasks students are expected to achieve
b)Understanding the specific child with whom they are interacting and his/her perspective on a problem
c)Needing to know how to help students make decisions so that the students can help themselves in the future The ideal role of middle school counselors includes:
a)Providing individual counseling
b)Group experience
c)Peer support systems
d)Teacher consultations
e)Student assessments
f)Parent conferences
g)Evaluation of guidance services Prevention

a)Most promising is the Succeeding in School approach (Gerler & Anderson, 1986)
i)Composed of ten 50-minute classroom guidance units
ii)Geared toward helping students feel comfortable about themselves, teachers, and their school so it leads to academic success
iii)Now an online program

b)Rosemarie Smead’s group counseling activities for children and adolescents (1995)
i)Complement of the Succeeding in School program
ii)Help develop skills for living in flexible ways that help students deal with sensitive areas like anger, grief, friendships, divorce and assertiveness.
iii)Group work extremely important with middle schoolers since they naturally merge into peer groups Individual counseling, peer counseling, and consultation activities are also useful to foster problem preventions
i)Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT) an approach that incorporates developmental concepts from individual theories along with family and multicultural theories

Peer mentoring
i)Older student in high school pairs up with a younger student (usually 7th grade or lower) to accept and teach the younger student through cooperative learning arrangements
(1)Both the older and younger student benefits

Teacher-advisor programs (TAPs) based on the premises that “guidance is everybody’s responsibility, that there are not enough trained counselors to handle all of a school’s guidance needs, and that teacher-based guidance is an important supplement to school counseling” (Galassi & Gulledge, 1997, p. 56) Remediation
a)Counselor’s services are best viewed as a Human Development Center (HDC) which deals with sensitive human beings such as students, teachers, parents, and the community
i)Stamm and Nissman (1979) recommend coordinating middle school counseling and guidance services with others to provide the most productive program
ii)8 services areas vital to a comprehensive counseling and guidance program and each service cluster is linked to the other (1)Communication service cluster primarily concerned with public relations and informing the general public about the counseling program

(2)Curriculum service concentrates on course placement and academic adjustments

(3)Assessment service cluster provides testing and evaluation services(a)Career resource cluster is linked with assessment services and it focuses on student’s future goals and vocation (4)Counseling services cluster/Crisis center cluster closely connected
(a)Counseling provided on individual, peer, and group level and available during off- and in-school hours
(b)Sometimes aimed at self-counseling – when people think the ideas they believe, then react to those ideal with logical emotional reactions and behaviors
(c)Crisis person – designated person during the school day that deals with emergencies and finds appropriate way to assist child
(i)Individual level = internal or external pressure
(ii)Group level = situation affects numerous persons (death of a student/teacher) (5)Community contact cluster works with parents and others interested to open communicational lines between school and other agencies

(6)Professional growth cluster provides programs for school staff and paraprofessionals (a)Critical to counselor’s success Secondary School counseling Stage of attempted liberation and mattering – relating to parents with new independence, relating to friends with new intimacy, and relating to oneself with new understandings (Coll, Thobro, & Hass, 2004, p. 41), and the internal perception that an individual is recognized as important to those they feel are important to them

Delinquent behaviors are rare in early adolescence, almost universal by midadolescence (15-17 years), then decrease afterwards

Began in the early 1900s when the primary emphasis was on building better citizens

Frank Parsons influence early growth of profession John Brewer actually pushed for the establishment of secondary school guidance in 1930s
i)Ideas didn’t gain acceptance right away
ii) life skills training – same ideas, new name; has become increasingly popular and strongly emphasized

Secondary school counseling was dramatic in 1960s when counseling employment tripled
i)3:1 ratio in favor of secondary counselor over elementary counselors

Employment opportunities started to increase around 1980s because counselors trained in NDEA institutes began to retire and more states made it mandatory to better their services

Estimated 100,000 counselors in schools today, many in secondary schools Emphasis and Roles

High school counselors concentrate on the following tasks:

i) Providing direct counseling services individually, in groups, and to the school as whole
ii) Providing education and supportive services to parents
iii) Offering consultation and in-service programs to teachers and staff
iv) Delivering classroom guidance (up to 25% of their time as suggested by the ASCA National Model)
v) Facilitating referrals to outside agencies
vi) Networking to postsecondary schools and businesses
vii) Advising academically According to Aubrey (1979), secondary counselors face two needs:

a)Engaging in student counseling

b)Doing academic and administrative tasks, like scheduling
Brown (1989) states that counselors are dysfunctional at this level due to lack of education, being misunderstood or misdirected by principals, a lack in planning, aren’t engaged in public relations, and violate ethical standards. View on secondary school counselors
a)Those who help program at highest regard were principals, superintendents, students, college and university personnel, other secondary school counselors, and counselor educations
b)Those who were less positive include teachers, parents, community leaders, and business leaders
c)Also seen as not being actively involved in group counseling or group guidance, not serving as consultants, and not making an impact on majority of students
d)On a positive note, counselors seen as well qualified and helpful with individual student bound for college Ways to improve perception is to make emphasis on roles that meet real needs by being facilitators of healthy learning environments, solving problems in the classroom, developing professional growth groups, and improving staff communications

Constant remodeling of the counseling program = implementation of services and evaluation of activities
a)program is an important function for any school counselor and requires a systematic plan Prevention
Primary prevention creates classroom educative experiences that affect students’ intellectual and personal development simultaneously.
i)Students become more self-reliant and empathetic, and less egocentric

Multiple ways to build primary prevention programs
i) Become familiar with current “popular songs” and attentively listening to the lyrics to become more knowledgeable about adolescent subcultures and better help teens cope with typical problems
ii) Thematic groups bring together students experiencing similar problems and allow counselors to make effective use of time and skills
iii) Occasionally teach prevention-based curriculum offerings that may help students deal with anxieties about school and tests, study skills, interpersonal relationships, self-control and career planning. This approach has two advantages:
(a)Less time needs to be devoted to remediation and intervention activities
(b)The counselor maintains a positive high profile with teacher and students
As an integrated part of the curriculum offerings, counselors have class members to participate in an interactive bibliotherapy in which students read a fiction or nonfiction book on specific subjects and discuss reactions with the counselor Five examples of problem areas in which prevention can make a difference (1)Cyberbullying teasing and taunting through electronic media

(2)Substance abuse programs work best when students start them early in life, when they’re based off social influence models, and involve student, teacher, parents, and the community (a)Student assistance programs (SAPs) composed of school personnel from variety of backgrounds and are aimed at being informative and helping students cope with their problems (3)Adolescent suicide/homicide antisocial behaviors and those who feel depressed or angry; programs stress the seriousness of such violence and gives alternatives. Ways to prevent are to help students, parents and school personnel become aware of danger signs and alert counselors and other mental help professionals
(i)The wraparound program has multiple services provided by a team of mental health professionals who work together to provide direct assistance to at-risk youth and those who have to come in contact with that youth
(b)an estimated 8% of adolescence attempted suicide per year and its the 3rd leading cause of death for this age group
(c)Girls mainly attempt while boys are more likely to carry out that attempt successfully. Boys are also more likely to commit homicides (4)Prevention of HIV infection counselors may or may not attempt to change students’ sexual activity but instead employ an informational and skill-based intervention program
(a)Support groups, parent workshops, and peer education are also good prevention techniques
(5)Abusive relationships (or interpersonal violence) counselors work with students in groups to emphasize that physical abuse aren’t normal nor necessary in relationships
(a)They teach students violence-prevention strategies such as anger management, assertiveness, and responsible verbal and nonverbal communication Remediation
School counselors initiate intervention programs with specific problems that aren’t agreeable to prevention techniques

Common mental disorders appear clearer around this age group centering on problems such as adjustment, behavior, anxiety and eating.

Counselors don’t focus on treating severe disorders, but instead, they focus on issues that occur in their setting
ii)Parental divorces
iii)Teenage parenting
iv)Substance abuse

Individual intervention, group intervention, and support groups are useful treatment methods Cooperation and facilitation
Involves the counselor in a variety of community and school activities

DeVoe and McClam (1982) give three important roles that counselors are accountable for:
i)Information retriever = getting information on complex situation like abused pregnant teens
ii)Service coordination
iii)Information administrator School counselors’ roles within the school and society have evolved and been up for debate

They try not to abandon roles that are vital for academic and environmental health while envisioning and making changes that increase their influence and services in educational settings

1997, the Education Trust which is a social organization with goals of improving schools, proposed a vision of school counseling that had counselors engaging in change-oriented activities that were empowering for schools, students and the counselors.

The ASCA formed its National Model for School Counseling Programs in 2005 that defined stable guidelines for school counselors to construct programs and to define a common language of practice for counselors 21st century school counseling ASCA National Model and the Educational Trust emphasize 3 major shifts counselors must make because of the transitional roles they are in now
(1)From “service delivery for individuals, students and their families ... to a focus on school-wide concerns”
(2)From “primarily responsive service orientation to school counseling partnerships that are proactive and developmental”
(3)From “working primarily as individuals to developing professional teams or ‘communities’” In 2003, University of Mass. established the Center for School Counseling Outcome Research & Evaluation which is an online program that provides research briefs on things like bullying, career intervention, violence, and building social skills.
i)Also gives practicing school counselors access to relevant research to make effective program decisions Bullying is a subject of aggression with three components:
a) intent to harm
c) a power imbalance between the bully and the target or victim
elementary school counselors should advocate in antibullying efforts for schools where the counselor can serve as a catalyst, a consultant, and a change agent.
An important step in this process is the forming of a steering committee (composed of teachers, administrators, and students)
One technique to prevent bullying is peer performed psychoeducational drama, which allows students to indirectly experience many of the negative consequences of bullying in an impersonal, non threatening way.
Providing positive adult role models for children to emulate may be helpful too as preventive measure along with systematically addressing negative influences such as parental discipline, negative peer models, lack of adult supervision, and neighborhood safety concerns.
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