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Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) Prezi

Class Presentation 7.23.13
by

Lena Glover

on 24 July 2013

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Transcript of Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) Prezi

Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS)
DSM-IV’s Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptom diagnostic criteria
Important Details
Author: Foa, E. (1996). Posttraumatic diagnostic scale
manual. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.

Publisher: National Computer Systems (NCS)
5605 Green Circle Drive Minnetonka, MN 55343
Telephone: 1-800-627-7271 (ext. 5151)

Purchasing: National Computer Systems (NCS), or Pearson
Education, Inc., ww.pearsonassessments.com

Category: Personality

Items
49 items
Sample item: "Having upsetting thoughts or images about the traumatic event that came into your head when you didn't want them to."
0. Not at all or only one time
1. Once a week or less/once in a while
2. 2 to 4 times a week/half the time
3. 5 or more times a week/almost always
Completion
10-15 minutes

paper and pencil or computer administered

four sections

Likert-type scale, dichotomous-choice, and multiple selection format questions

Validity
PDS was designed to correlate to DSM-IV’s diagnostic criteria for PTSD, with expert review and revisions of the test items

Total severity score from 0-51 measured by the PDS, reflecting the 17 PTSD symptoms from the DMS-IV

5 scores

Convergent validity was explored with two other assessments
- found that PDS scores are valid in measuring PTSD
References
Axford, S. N. (2001). Review of the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, The fourteenth mental measurements yearbook [electronic version]. Retrieved from the Burros Institute's Mental Measurements Yearbook online database.

Doll, B. (2001). Review of the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, The fourteenth mental measurements yearbook [electronic version]. Retrieved from the Burros Institute's Mental Measurements Yearbook online database.

Powers, M.B., Gillihan, S. J., Rosenfield, D., Jeered, A. B., Foa, E. B. (2012). Reliability and validity of the PDS and PSS-I among participants with PTSD and alcohol dependence. Journal of Anxiety Disorder, 26(5), 616-623.

Cohen, H. (2006). What Causes PTSD?. Psych Central. Retrieved on July 23, 2013, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-causes-ptsd/000162
What exactly is PTSD?
Also as the name implies, PTSD is defined by specific symptoms after experiencing a very traumatic event. The brain is impacted by traumatic experiences, including the amygdala, which is where we learn about fear, and the hippocampus, which is used for memory. Research has indicated that for people with PTSD there is a loss of volume in the hippocampus which may explain memory deficits and other symptoms in PTSD, and some research as shown that the amygdala is hyperactive in people with PTSD, which can trigger a "false alarm". Other neurochemicals, muscle memory, and hormones may also be affected and influence PTSD symptoms. The biology behind PTSD
continues to be studied.
1.Recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections
of the event, including images, thoughts, and
perceptions
2.Recurrent distressing dreams of the event
3.Acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were
recurring
4.Intense psychological distress at exposure to
internal or external cues that symbolize or
resemble an aspect of the traumatic event
5.Physiological reactivity on exposure to internal
or external cues that symbolize or resemble an
aspect of the traumatic event
6.Efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or
conversations associated with the trauma
Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS) is designed to correlate to the
The PSS-SR was the precursor to the PDS. It measured the 17 DSM-III-R PTSD symptoms.
PDS hand-scoring starter kit:
Includes PDS manual, 1 softcover test booklet, 10 answer sheets, 10 scoring worksheets, and 1 scoring directions sheet: $67.00
PDS hand-scoring reorder kit: $168.00
Pack of 5 test booklets: $19.00
PDS manual/user’s guide: $41.50
Profile Reports (prepared by Pearson): depending on number ordered
Cost
Reliability
PDS has a high internal consistency--> a Cronbach alpha of .97

this underscores stability and diagnostic agreement between administrative events

No precise information is given for diverse populations, except that a normative population that can use this assessment
For
Ages 18-65 years old

8th grade reading level

Diverse normative base, not just combat veterans
Qualification for administering this assessment:
B, Q1-Level
1. Symptom severity score;
2. Number of symptoms endorsed;
3. Symptom severity rating;
4. Level of impairment in
functioning; and
5. PTSD diagnosis.
5 Scores
Reviews
Mental Measurements Yearbook offers two reviews:


1. Reliability and validity are confirmed, with a strong assessment tool to screen for PTSD as well as enable treatment progress with follow-up assessments. Further research is called for studying larger and demographically representative samples. Overall strong support for this instrument (Axford, 2001).
2. PDS is promising as a tool to assess for trauma in those individuals who know they have been traumatized. Study sample not representative of minorities, as Hispanics and other minorities were under-represented. High reliability and validity in convergent scores with another assessment tool. Further replication of the the research validating the PDS in other sample populations needs to be done (Doll, 2001).
Critique
useful in a clinical setting, as it is easy to administer, and takes a short amount of time to complete.

useful for therapists planning on treating traumatized clients, as it can quickly help them understand the issues and where the pain lies

useful in a family setting, where a family has experienced a traumatic event as a family.
better normative base as compared to other PTSD tests

fast and easy to administer

easy scoring

progress report option to evaluate progress with client

high validity and reliability.
Pro’s
Con’s
would be improved with additional research on other demographic populations, particularly minorities, and additional studies with scoring by other administrators to repeat scores and results.
Brought to you by
Greta Hentsch-Cowles
and Kathleen Glover

Thank you!
7.Efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that arouse
recollections of the trauma
8.Inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma
9.Markedly diminished interest or participation in significant
activities
10.Feeling of detachment or estrangement from others
11.Restricted range of affect (e.g., unable to have loving feelings)
12.Sense of foreshortened future (e.g., does not expect to have a
career, marriage, children or a normal life span)
13.Difficulty falling or staying asleep
14.Irritability or outbursts of anger
15.Difficulty concentrating
16.Hypervigilance
17.Exaggerated startle response
17 symptoms:
As the title suggests...
Example of a PSD Report:
Full transcript