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Transcript of Antebellum Era
border should be extended all the
way to the Pacific Coast. Texas Was called Texas by Stephen Austin, leader of many whites to the region. Leading to Mexican War 1824, President John Quincy Adams wanted to
buy Texas from Mexico but was denied along with
President Jackson in 1828. Many whites moved to Mexico
Disobyed the laws there
Out numbered Mexicans Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna was Mexico's president in 1833 and led 2,000 troops aganist the rebellious Texians. All Texican settlers were destroyed Santa Anna was about to have
350 men killed who were texian.... Battle of Jacinto Sam Houston led 800 men aganist Santa Anna,
where they defeated his army, gaining their
Independence and also became the 28th state
of America. Presented by Simone Mckibben, Michelle Wang,
Ghirardy Branchedor, Shelby Johnson, Kennedy Reed,
and last but not least, Sharon Lackwood!! Oregon California Wanted by United States. Great Britian and United States argued
about where the Canadian/United States
border was. On 1818, they decided the border should be
the 49th parrallel and the two countries split the region. People began to move west
into the new territories to.... Seek Andventures Wanted land for mines, gold, and trapping To Escape religon. Others wanted to get away from the
crowded cities. States' Rights The belief that the state's interests should
take precedence over the interests of the
National Government. The Oregon and Santa Fe trails were the
favored route to go west which had barren
and hostile lands The settlers traveled in covered wagons and
faced many severe storms and Native American
attacks Those who died were buried underneath the trail Northern Southerns Believed that in order for the United
States to function, it had to be one union
and a strong national government. All of the states should abide by laws that were made by congress, signed by president, or decree by the courts. Believed that the states could govern
themselves and decide what would be
good for their own needs and situation. They also believed that politicans who
were from Maine and New York couldn't detect the problems
down in Georgia or South Carolina. Wanted to abolish slavery Economy was based on factories,
mining, banks, stores, and railroads. Favored high tariffs on goods so when it
came to them, it cost less and would outsell
other countires Had museums, operas,
lectures, and theaters Schools were open to both female and male The northerners believed that all their
beliefs made them the best section in
the United States. Cotton
Rice Favored low tariffs because they bought alot of goods No formal education
Private schools were only open to upperclass citizens Believed in the rights of states to determine their own destiny Social ladder Slaves Social
Ladder Merchants Ladies maid and dresser Butler or manservant Planters Farmers with Slaves Owned over 50 slaves Free Blacks Yeoman farmers/
Poor Whites Merchants consist of.... Lived in brick homes and knew
much about city life Kept within their social classes Small Land Large Land And more than 1,000 acers of land!! ( Coach Driver/
Doorman Cook Household maids Slave Driver field hands Were the wealthiest people Attended dance balls,
horse races, and picnics Each family member had a personal
slave for his/her needs. ( Even newborns!!) Had fine clothing owned 20-29 slaves Could have up to 1,000
acers of land Produced most of the political
leaders in the Southern areas Controlled the wealth in the South Some of the acitivies they did were... Attended theaters
lectures Their Culture is based on agriculture.... Didn't interact with the Planters often They owned five or less slaves Parties were only held around special holidays Women did the house work Homes lived in weren't big at
all compared to those owned
by planters The food was grown and their
clothing became simpler Teachers Doctors Ministers newspaper publishers And lawyers They were denied citizen rights
and weren't able to... Vote Own land Receive an education And travel the United States without a pass The Free Blacks
Made up 6% of
the population Lived off the land with no money made up 75% of the population Had shacks as shelters which werent painted *Slaves with lighter complexion had a better living. They worked inside the plantation and got better needs. Children worked from sun rise to sun set Most of the people were barefoot
and only had two outfits Depended on others for survival Had to look for food/clothing/jobs Abolition Was the movement to demolish slavery Abolonists made speeches, wrote books, articles, and housed runaway slaves. Slaves As the cotton production increased the slave population increased also. In 1819, the United States had 11 slave states and 11 free states.... Better clothing In 1820, Maine joined the Union and became a free state while Missouri became a slave state. Kept both the Union and Confederate balanced In 1836, the House of Representative adopted a "Gag Rule,"which meant that the Representatives wouldn't do anything about the antislavery petitions. food And huts They worked in farms producing
vase amounts of cotton in the 1850s Some of the abolitionist were... Harriet Beecher Stowe Fredrick Douglass Was from Connecticut and published a book
talking about slavery which caused the Notherns
to dislike it even more. In 1820, he wrote an article "Positive Good Thesis of Slavery"
which stated the benefits of slavery and more southerners
believed enslavement was fair. Charles Fitzhugh Published a newspaper "North Star"
and traveled the country describing
the evils of slavery as a black abolistionist. "What was possible for me is possible for
you. Do not think because you are colored
you cannot accomplish anything. Strive
earnestly to add to your knowledge. So long
as you remain in ignorance, so long will you
fail to command the respect of your fellow men." Was a slave who was taken out of the state of
Missouri to the free state of Illinois by his slave
master. Dred Scott Once they returned to Missouri, Dred Scott filled a case saying he was a free slave since
he'd been in a slave free state. Was born a slave but was freed in 1827 when New York abolished slavery. On March of 1857 the case was in the Supreme Court's hand in which the justicies denied it. She became a traveling preacher and her most famous speech give was "Ain't I a Woman?" They told Dred Scott, since he was slave, and slaves weren't yet recoginzed as citizens, he couldn't sure anyone and he remained a slave. During her visit to Washington D.C, she begged President Lincoln to allow black soldiers to fight alongside the Union in the war. In 1882, before her death, she was forced to give up her teaching and preaching. Sojourner Truth The Missouri
Compromise of 1820 The Compromise
of 1850 Purpose was to seperate the slave states from the
free states at the 36 30' latitude southern border of
Missouri. 0 Many people traveled to California for
the riches in 1849 causing the population
to become over 1,000, enough to become
a state. If California became a state, it would mess up the
balance of the free and non-free states exsisting. A new president, Milliard Filmore, due to the death
of Taylor Zachary was elected and he liked the idea
of California being a state. Califronia came in as a free state. Benefits from Noth and South The"Gag Rule" angered President John Quincy Adams.
He fought for the northerns support. North South Slave trading was ended in the District of Columbia Texas gave up its idea of annexing New Mexico,
thus taking that territory away from a slave state. Mexico and Utah would be able to determine
if they wanted to be a slave state or either a
free state. They residents of the district of Columbia could
keep the slaves they already had. Congress would pass a law stating that slaves who
ran away to free states would be returned to their
owners. Kansas- Nebraska
Act Sectionalism The belief by the people in a given region that their ideas and interests are are better and more important than others. Both the court and the Congress tried to answer
the slavery questions as the country expanded west. Georgia's economy is mostly based on agriculture. Georgia's Economy When Nebraska and Kansas became states,
they were asked whether they wanted to be
slave-free or have slavery, accoring to the popular
sovereignty. Notherns became angry because it went
aganist the Missouri Compromise of 1850 War broke out between two groups after
the act was passed. The Proslavery, people who wanted slavery
and the Free soilers, who didn't want slavery
fought in Kansas. In 1860, there were 68,000 farms in the states that produced 700,000 bales of cotton. Georgia had 1,890 factories with a value of $11 million Supporters of each group promised to send people
to Kansas to fight for their side of the battle. Education Wealthy planters had private tutors or private academies Once the act was rejected by Congress,
the southerners began to worry about
the Northerners being able to keep slave states from the union. In 1850, around 20% of the whites couldn't read nor write. Half of Georgia's population had
uneducated children that were black. In 1858, the state legislature set aside $100,000 to start free schools. The plan was put on halt due to the
the Civil War. In 1851, the Georgia Military Institude was open in Marietta.
Georgia Academy for the Blind opened in Macon. In 1859, Joseph Lumpkin and Thomas Cobb opened the first Georgia's law school in Athens. The cost of slaves depended on the amount of cotton produced. Its industrial base was smaller than the Northerns. Religion By 1860, there were 2,393 churches in the state. Antebellum Georgia The Election of 1860 Antebellum Fashion Discovery Methodist and Baptist were the largest.
Episcopal, Catholics, and Presbyterian churches were large also, but continued to grow.
Churches that consist of Jews were rather small. Slaves went to the same churches as their master. The End In 1842, 27 year old physician Dr. Crawford W. Long discovered anesthesia for surgery use. Politics In the 1840's, Democratics and the Whigs were the major political groups.
Democrats supported states' rights and slavery. Their leaders were Herschel V. Johnson, Joseph E. Brown, and Howell Cobb (U.S congress man).
Whigs were mostly upperclassed who favored moderate protective tariff and federal help from the south. The Whigs were led by Robert Toombs and Alexander H. Stephens. The Northern and Southerns grew more and more apart
and refused to trade with each other and had restrictions made. Economic
Considerations During the 1840s, most legistlatures were Whigs and most governors were democratics. The Know Nothing party didn't want immigrants to become citizens or hold political office. Churches wouldn't accept slave owners in missionaries. After the election of 1852, the Whig party began to break up nationally.
Northern parts of Whigs were more antislavery and were less willing to compromise with the southern part of the Whigs to keep internal peace. In 1854, the result of breaking up with the Whigs led to the creation of a new party.
The Republican Party was one of the new political parties that contained Democratics and Whigs.
In 1856, the Republicans nominated John C. Fremont for president on the platform that opposed slavery. Platform- a statement of the principles and policies the party supports Democrat James Buchanan won,
but Fremont got 1.3 million votes. The supporters of Stephan A. Douglas of
Illinois controlled the platform commitee. He suggested slavery should be based on popular sovereignty; however, the
Southern Democratis believed slavery should be allowed in all territoires. Northern Democrats nominated Stephen A. Douglas for president.
Southern Democrats met in Baltimore and nominated Vice President John Breckenridge. Whigs also met in Baltimore to form the Costitutional Union party.
Whigs supported the Union and elected John Bell of Tennessee as a presidental candidate.
Repubicans met in Chicago and nominated Abraham Lincoln of Illoinois. Lincoln received 1.9 million votes and won the election
without getting a single vote from the southern states. In 1832, South Carolina threatened to secede
from the Union because of its high taxes. President Andrew Jackson asked Congress to allow him to take his army into South Carolina and make them agree to the taxes. In return, Congress passed a compromise that
lowered tariffs in a 10 year period,
avoiding conflict. A Depression, known as the Panic of 1857
hit the country and effected the North more
than it did the south. Because of the disagreement between the North
and the South once again, the two groups split. The republicans who elected Abraham Lincoln opposed everything that the southerners took at interest. Southern Belle look Wealthy Women wore large hoop dresses with ribbions and ruffles. They decorated with acessories like floppy hats or jewelery. Ballgowns Slaves wore bonnets and aprons around their hoop skirts. Sports After the election, many Georgians
formed groups and had debates about
the matter. Cricket Horse Racing Checkers Hunting Swimming Slaves Lived in one room huts that only had a fireplace and simple furnitures you need everyday Slaves that worked in the plantation got hand me downs from their slave owners.
Those who worked outside in the fields got heavy clothes that barely fit and were mostly barefooted They felt like they were being forced to make
a decision whether to be for the Union or States' Rights due to Lincoln being the new president. Most slaves ate fatback, molasses, and cornbread.
Some plantation owners gave their games to their slaves. Rice planters had the toughest job. They were bent over the whole time and had to wade throught the water and were expected to harvest at least 5 to 6 barrels of rice. Slaves had to pick cotton by hand... Work from dawn to dust, Slaves were punished if they didn't harvest enough crops
for that day. The punishment was receiving a wip on the
back followed by a lash. Novebember 21, 1860, a secession convention
was called by Governor Brown And were watched by overseer and owners. South Carolina left the Union
December 20, 1860, one month
after the election of Abraham Lincoln. Daily lives of Slaves There were slaves that gardened or logged trees, loaded crops, and repaired or built infrastructures. Several over states followed thier pathway and left the union too. Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana,
Alabama and texas all withdrew
and created a new nation by the
name of the Confederate States of
America. Some slaves called drivers (older slaves that owners thought that were loyal) were used as supervisors. The president of the new nation was
Jefferson David and the secretary of
state became Robert Toombs. If women were not working on the field, they had to sew, weave, prepare food , and take care of their kids. Kids started working around 5 years of age. They shooed away chickens, carried water to the field workers, gathered nuts and berries, and collected firewoods. Slaves were used until they were too sick or too old to work in the plantation. Families Masters encouraged slaves to marry someone in a different plantation because if the women had children, then it would be the woman's master's property. Laws didn't reconize slave marriages. Masters tried their best to keep the slaves' family together. However, if the Slaves' master died, then slaves would have to be seperated to go work on someone elses plantation. Religion Both freed blacks and slaves converted
to Christianity during the Great Revival. Skating Running Baseball Southern states weren't at all
interested in factories like the
Northern states and therefore
didn't have much of an infrastructure. During the slave quarters, the black preacher
would show a desire for freedom and justice. Tariffs Slaves sang spiritual songs everywhere they wemt. " Go down Moses" and "Swing Love Sweet Chariot"
were many of the few songs sung to find comfort. North "Follow the Drinking Gourd" gave directions to the Underground railroad. South Education It was against the law for slaves to learn how to write and read. Some owners thought that it will be useful for the slaves to know how to read and write so the slaves could read the labels on the food barrels and write messages. They wanted countries that shipped
products to the United States to pay
high tariffs. If higher tariffs were paid, then
the Notherners would get more
business and countries would buy
their goods since it was cheaper. Some slave owners feared that if their slaves could read and write then the slaves could cause trouble. Rules and Rebellions Southerners didn't want the prices they paid
on imported goods to become higher. Richmond, Virginia
In 1800, Gabriel Prosser gathered 1,000 slaves to rebel against slavery.
He was betrayed by two slaves and was executed. If they became higher, it would hurt their
pocket since the states in the south didn't have
factories to manufacture goods. Charleston, South Carolina
In 1822, Denmark Vensey failed 5,000 slaves to rebellion.
In 1831, Nat Turner led a rebellion that killed 57 to 85 people. Because of Turner, laws were passed that restricted slaves to go anywhere without a pass or their owners. 1833, if anyone taught slaves how to read or write, they were punished or paid fines. Slave codes took away almost all the rights of slaves.It was against the law to harm whites or contact others. Because notherners built industires with borrowed
money before the panic, during the panic, nearly
5,000 of them went bankrupt. Slaves were watched every day except Sundays and on holidays. Even with the restrictions, slaves rebelled by damaging the properties of their owner. John Brown hated slavery and wanted to help slaves. Brown led 21 men, black and white, in a raid on the
federal arms storehouse(arsenal) at Harpers Ferry However Colonial Robert E.Lee captured Brown and he was hung.