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20th Century Era of Music Timeline
Transcript of 20th Century Era of Music Timeline
was greatly shaped and defined by the innovation of technology in creating sounds and rhythms through machines. The Era was also an age of musical diversity wherein composers were not bound by rules and were more creatively free to create their own music. It is for this reason why the era is vast and distinct Expressionism 1908 - 1921 This style was the representation of the deep personal feelings of the artist and his or her perspective and opinions on different things. Arnold Schoenberg Sept 13 1874 - July 13 1951 Arnold Schoenberg was an Austrian composer and painter that led the Expressionist movement in music. He was born into a lower middle class Jewish family in the Leopoldstadt district of Vienna. Schoenberg was entirely self taught and received only a minimal formal training in music. During the rise of the Nazi Party in Austria, his music was labeled as outrageous art. His early works were influenced by Romantic composers like Wagner, Strauss, and Mahler. In the effort of expressing his emotions musically, he abandoned the Romantic style and gradually developed a new way of composing called Serialism. Serial music, also known as twelve-tone music, is based on tone rows consisting of the 12 notes in the chromatic scale. written in 1974 for a reciter, chorus, and orchestra, is one of his compositions that expresses his outrage and resentment toward the Nazis for driving him out of his country because of his Jewish heritage. Schoenberg's
"A Survivor from Warsaw" Impressionist Music 1875 - 1940 was similar to that of Impressionist art. An impressionist composer creates musical impressions of a scene or idea and captures the mood of the scene. The center of Impressionism is France. Claude Debussy Aug 22 1862 - Mar 23 1918 Claude Debussy was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France to a poor Manuel-Achille Debussy, a shopkeeper, and Victorine Manoury Debussy, a seamstress. Though his parents wanted him to be in the navy, he showed musical talent and interest at the age of ten. Debussy introduced the new styles of Impressionism to the music world. His music's greatest inspiration were the works of French poets and painters of his day. He died of rectal cancer but underwent one of the first colostomy operations ever performed. Debussy's demise came in the midst of a German attack in Paris. "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" of Debussy is his most popular orchestral piece. It is a musical interpretation of a poem by French poet Stephane Mallarme Neoclassicism in Music 1914 - 1945 "Neo" means "new", so Neo-classical music was new music with Classical techniques. This style was a "call to order" for musical techniques from the two decades of unruly expression and experiments. It was a trend during the periods of the World Wars. Igor Stravinsky June 17 1882 - Apr 6 1971 Stravinksy was born in the Russian resort town of Oranienbaum and grew up in Saint Petersburg. His father was of Polish noble descent and expected him to become a lawyer. So, he enrolled himself in the University of Saint Petersburg and studied law for four years. Although having studied law, Stravinsky committed his life to music. He became well-known when he was commissioned as composer for Russian Serge Diaghilev's ballet company. Here Stravinsky wrote three of his most significant works, The Firebird, Petrushka, and the Rite of Spring. In January 23 1906, he was married to his first cousin, Yekaterina Gabrielovna Nossenko and had two children the two consecutive years following that. "The Rite of Spring"
by Stravinsky made him very popular because it caused an infamous classical music riot at its 1913 premier in Paris. The piece was so startlingly harsh and percussive that the police had to be called to control the audience. You are also listening to it right now. Avant-Garde Music started at1945 Music that is described to be ahead of its time, totally new, unique, and innovative. It is also unexplored combinations of different genres. Charles Ives Oct 20 1874 – May 19 1954 Charles Edward Ives was born in Danbury, Connecticut. His father, George Ives, was a U.S. Army bandleader and immensely influenced Charles in music. It was through the lessons and teachings of his father did Ives learn the technique of polytonality. He was especially known for using polytonality, the musical use of several keys simultaneously. Ives also experimented with complex harmonies and rhythms long before any other composers. Ives lived off of his insurance business career and used his salary to publish his own music. He was not particularly famous when he lived so he just gave his music away to anyone who wanted it. Music was never a profession for him and only a passion and a hobby. Charles Ives's Symphony No.3 was written in 1904, revised in 1911, and publicly performed in 1946. It won a Pulitzer Prize the next year. Bela Bartok Mar 25 1881 – Sept 26 1945 Bartok was a Hungarian composer and pianist. He displayed musical talent very early in life; he was able to differentiate dance rhythms his mother played before he could read complete sentences. By the age of four, Bartok was able to play 40 pieces on the piano and his mother began formally teaching him the next year. With his interest in Hungarian folk music, Bartok traveled along the countryside and recorded and compiled villagers singing folk songs. His folk song research, coupled with his individual style is what made up most of his works. In 1940, Bela Bartok moved to the U.S. to escape the Nazis. He lived his last days composing for the keyboard and performing concerts in New York City. One of Bartok's achievements, "Mikrokosmos" is 153 piano pieces that were only intended as piano studies for his son but became well-known for how skillful it was composed. 20th Century Folk Music peaked at 1960 It is the evolved or contemporary version of traditional folk music. This style is the fusion of 20th century compositional techniques and folk traditions. Some of its branches are blues and jazz. Aleatoric Music 1950 is another form of avant-garde music and is also known as chance music. This requires the performer to make on-the-spot and spontaneous decisions during a piece, such as choosing rhythms, notes, and lengths of sections. An aleatoric performance is unexpected for the composer and the audience. John Cage Sept 5 1912 – Aug 12 1992 Cage was born in Los Angeles, California. He graduated as valedictorian in Highschool and wanted to be a writer at first. He also traveled Europe exploring different fields and careers. It is there that he discovered his love for music. Cage's works reflected his dislike with rules and formats as well as his free-spirited personality. His compositions were mostly aleatoric and avant-garde. According to him, "The music I prefer, even to my own or anybody else's is what we are hearing if we are just quiet." At the age of 80, Cage died of heart attack. He requested for him to be cremated and his ashes to be scattered in the Ramapo Mountains, near Stony Point, New York. This is same place where he scattered his parents' ashes before. 4'33" was Cage's most notorious aleatoric work because it was a composition where the performer sits silently at the piano and not doing anything for 4 minutes and 33 seconds. The music is the surrounding sounds of the environment during that time. Electronic Music originated at the late 19th century, expanded and developed in 1960, to present The development and fame of this style followed that of technology. It was further improved in 1960, by the end of the second world war, when computers were invented. This music makes a great deal use of electronic musical instruments and electronic music technology. It is also the manipulation of certain melodies and sounds and the fusion of varied songs. Edgard Varese Dec 22 1883 – Nov 6 1965 Varese was born and raised in France. He was more endeared to his grandparents than to his parents who gave him an oppressive life at home. Varese moved to the U.S. where he spent most of his career during World War I. His use of new instruments and electronic resources and his influence on other major composers of the 20t century was what made him the "Father of Electronic Music". His music was comprised of new compositional techniques, new combinations of instruments, and a significant role for percussion. Needing to create the style of music he really wanted, Varese focused on incorporating sounds created from a machine. He stopped composing for a while when he could not find the best suitable sound-producing machine for his music, and turned to teaching. When the magnetic tape and electronic instruments were developed, Varese was again enticed to composing electronic music. "Poeme Electronique" by Varese was a piece for electric tape. It was intended to be a liberation between sounds thus had noises that were not typically considered as "musical". It is an eight hour work that was projected through 425 loudspeakers. The Further Development of Electronic Music The CSIRAC was the first computer to play music publicly. Aug 1951 1970 Moog Music released the Mini-Moog, the first widely available, portable and relatively affordable synthesizers. It became the most widely used synthesizer in both popular and electronic art music. Pop and Rock musicians, including The Beach Boys and The Beatles, began to use electronic instruments, like the theremin and Mellotron, to improve and support their sound. By the end of the decade, the Moog synthesizer was the leader of the sound of emerging progressive rock with bands including Pink Floyd, Yes, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, and Genesis . Late 1960s Dance music records using only electronic instruments became increasingly popular. The trend has continued to the present day with modern nightclubs worldwide regularly playing electronic dance music. Late 1980s Electronic music and electronic instruments were greatly accepted that it is now a genre of itself. Other genres, such as pop, rock, alternative, and its respective branches have electronic music as a significant component. Present Sources: Information and Text:
Music History Booklet
Music: Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring, Part I: The Adoration of the Earth" (1913) The 20th century has been a witness of how we grew not only in music but in the other aspects of our society. These developments and changes are what built the foundations of the people today. Music is one of the evidences of how radical and innovative our ancestors had become. It is for these events, people, and advancements that the music that colors our lives are the way it is. Understanding and learning it would help and inspire the next generation to build a name for this century that would revolutionize Music. Most of the 20th Century pieces were mostly written in Western countries and nations. Much of the works of the century were composed and published in the United States. But European countries like France, Russia, and England were also breathing grounds for this new kind of music. The most remarkable instruments of the 20th Century were percussive instruments and electronic machines such as synthesizers and recorders. It is in this period where the percussion section gained its importance and fame. And since technology was significantly developed in this century, electronic instruments played a key role in the era.