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AP econ project
Transcript of AP econ project
Rote Memorization Standards Core Curriculum Who controls
the standards? "The school in turn will be a laboratory in which
the student of education sees theories and ideas
demonstrated, tested, criticized, enforced, and the
evolution of new truth." (Dewey 109) "No one, I assume would deny that all the knowledge
we have is a result of our asking questions; indeed,
that question-asking is the most significant intellectual
tool human beings have." (Postman 161) "For the child to realize his own by recognizing
the facts, materials, and conditions involved,
and then to regulate his impulse through that
recognition, is educative." (Dewey 57) "A thought is not a thought unless it is one's
own. On the traditional method, the child
must say something that he has merely learned."
(Dewey 66-67) Technology Ball State University: Model Sustainable Campus Our Generation's Responsibilty Our development should take into account not only the needs and interests of our present generation, but also those of generations to come. Poverty Situational
Natural Disaster (What they don't show you behind the Scenes) Media (What they don't want you
to see behind the scenes) Anti-Trust Laws The Big Ten U.S. Supreme CourtAssociated Press v. United States, 326 U.S. 1 (1945)Associated Press v. United StatesNo. 57Argued December 5, 6, 1944Decided June 18, 1945*326 U.S. 1APPEAL FROM THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE UNITED STATES FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK. Syllabus By-laws of the Associated Press, a cooperative association engaged in gathering and distributing news in interstate and foreign commerce, prohibited service of AP news to nonmembers, prohibited members from furnishing spontaneous news to nonmembers, and empowered members to block membership applications of competitors. A contract between AP and a Canadian press association obligated both to furnish news exclusively to each other. Charging, inter alia, that the bylaws and the contract violated the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Government sought an injunction against AP and member publishers. Upon the Government's motion, the District Court rendered summary judgment.Held:1. The bylaws and the contract, together with the admitted facts, justified summary judgment. Rule 56 of the Rules of Civil Procedure. P. 326 U. S. 5.2. Publishers charged with violating the Sherman Act are subject, no less than others, to the summary judgment procedure. P. 326 U. S. 7.3. The bylaws, on their face, constitute restraints of trade and violate the Sherman Act. P. 326 U. S. 12.(a) That AP had not achieved a complete monopoly is irrelevant. P. 326 U. S. 12. Page 326 U. S. 2(b) Trade in news carried on among the States is interstate commerce. P. 326 U. S. 14.(c) The fact that AP's activities are cooperative does not render the Sherman Act inapplicable. P. 326 U. S. 14.(d) Although true in a general sense that an owner of property may dispose of it as he pleases, he can not go beyond the exercise of that right and, by contracts or combinations, express or implied, unduly hinder or obstruct the free flow of interstate commerce. P. 326 U. S. 15.(e) The fact that there are other news agencies which sell news, and that AP's reports are not "indispensable," can give AP's restrictive bylaws no exemption under the Sherman Act. P. 326 U. S. 17.(f) The result here does not involve an application of the "public utility" concept to the newspaper business. P. 326 U. S. 19.(g) Arrangements or combinations designed to stifle competition can not be immunized through a membership device which would accomplish that purpose. P. 326 U. S. 19.(h) Application of the Sherman Act to a combination of publishers to restrain trade in news does not abridge the freedom of the press guaranteed by the First Amendment. Pp. 326 U. S. 19-20.4. The decree of the District Court, interpreted as meaning that AP news is to be furnished to competitors of members without discrimination through bylaws controlling membership or otherwise, is not vague and indefinite, and is approved. P. 326 U. S. 21.5. The District Court did not err in refusing to hold as a violation of the Sherman Act standing alone (1) the bylaws provision forbidding service of AP news to nonmembers, (2) the bylaws provision forbidding AP members from furnishing spontaneous news to nonmembers, or (3) the Canadian press contract; and the court was justified in enjoining their observance temporarily pending AP's abandonment of the bylaws provision empowering members to block membership applications of competitors. P. 326 U. S. 21.6. The fashioning of a decree in an antitrust case, to prevent future violations and eradicate existing evils, rests largely in the discretion of the trial court. P. 326 U. S. 22.7. The case having been presented on the narrow issues arising out of undisputed facts, it cannot be said that the District Court's decree should have been broader, and, if the decree in its present form should prove inadequate to prevent further discriminatory trade restraints against nonmember newspapers, the District Court's retention of jurisdiction of the cause will enable it to take appropriate action. P. 326 U. S. 22.Full article at http://supreme.justia.com/us/326/1/case.html "The gift of the eighteenth century is to be found in the intelligence and vigor of the questions it raised about progress...What is progress? How does it happen? How was it corrupted? What is the relationship between technological and moral progress?" -Postman "After an agonizing and prolonged decline, the long-suffering Vertically Integrated Media Conglomerate (1989-2009) passed away.
It's an idea that was born when Time Inc. merged with Warner Communications Corp. in 1989, to form Time Warner. It endured as the industry's prevailing business model for nearly a generation, spawning such clones and mongrel breeds as Viacom, News Corp and GE's NBC Universal. The vertically integrated media conglomerate was—or was supposed to be—many amazing things, giving a handful of companies unprecedented power over the media—and the chance to earn outsized profits in the process. But its defining characteristic was its sheer size, earning it a fitting nickname: Big Media.
But the theory behind the strategy relied on more than size. Housed under one roof, a single Big Media entity would control the means of producing and distributing media content, from magazine and books to television shows and movies, from cartoons and theme parks to sports franchises and the cable networks that carry the games to recorded music labels and music publishers. In Time Warner’s prototype of the model, it would control everything from the first letter of a Time magazine story or Warner Books novel to the last alphabet of the credits at the end of a Warner Brothers flick or HBO series based on the magazine story or the book division's fiction. For a time, Time Warner boasted a wide array of media assets: the World Championship Wrestling league and the Atlanta Braves; CNN and Six Flags theme parks; the sitcom "Friends" and hourlong drama "ER"; the BET cable channel and InStyle magazine." - Newsweek Magazine Media has a large influence over this
sector. My point is that if we are going to make
technology education part of the curriculum, its goal must be to teach students
to use technology rather than to be used by it. And that means that they must know how technology use effects the society in which they live, as well as their own personal lives. This is something we did not do with television, and I fear we are not doing now with computer technology. Postman 171 p. 87 “America’s first paper, published in 1690, indicated that its purpose was to combat the spirit of lying which then prevailed in Boston (and, I’m told, still does.)” p.89 “The bad news is that, in solving it, we have created another problem, never before experienced: information glut, information as garbage, information divorced from purpose and even meaning.” “Newspapers still have editors and reporters whose interests are not wholly driven by the market.” “Has anyone been discussing the matter of how we can distinguish between what is true and what is false?” “Those who speak enthusiastically about the great volume of statements about the world available on the Internet do not usually address how we may distinguish the true from the false.” “If I were asked to say what is the worst thing about television news or radio news, I would say that it is just this: that there is no reason offered for why the information is there; no background; no connectedness to anything else; no point of view; no sense of what the audience is supposed to do with the information. It is as if the word “because” is entirely absent from the grammar of broadcast journalism.” How we you define technology? Where are we headed? Where did we start? Where have we been? Effects on Adults
-Deal with anxiety and depression due to the stress of their circumstances
-Do not get to spend quality time with their children or other family members because they are struggling to provide basic needs
-Do not understand social norms making it difficult to get or keep a job
-Make snap decisions because they don't understand the concept of consequences that come with different decisions
-Believe they don't have a chance for success in the future so they don't see the need for education What is your definition of technology?
How did we develop entertainment technology before educational technology?
What is our interpretation of technology?
Does technology make our minds more open or closed?
What is the general purpose of technology?
Is it dangerous to open up our thoughts to social networking sites?
Effects on Children and their Education
No access to technology (computers)
Stress due to change in economic status
-- If a child has never seen his/her parents struggle with money before, this could be a shock to them.
-- The changes in the lifestyle to which the child is used to living may be confusing and tough.
-- Children are sometimes too young to understand the changes that are happening and why they are doing so; creating more problems at home and at school.
Mom and dad may be feeling stressed and may influence the child’s performance in school and their ability to concentrate.
-- If mom or dad has to go back to work, they have less time with the kids and less time to help the kids with schoolwork.
If family has to move into a lower-class area, the neighborhood may be a poor environment for the child to be in.
-- There may be higher levels of crime. Bureaucrats, teachers, independent
third parties? How useful are standardized
tests, anyway? Different states have
Is this an issue? Should school funding
be based upon test
performance? What is "average?"
Who is "average?" Why do we mandate the classes
that we do?
Should we mandate others we do
Should we eliminate some classes
from core curriculum entirely? Who decides the
core curriculum? Should relevance play any part
in the choosing of courses within
the core curriculum? What is GENERATIONAL POVERTY? -having been in poverty for at least two generations
-"attitude" plays a key role in distinguishing generational and situational poverty
-"In generational poverty, the players feel that society owes them a living whereas in situational, they often allow pride to keep them from accepting needed assistance" (Cleveland). "Generational poverty has its own culture, hidden rules and belief system." how does this HAPPEN? -being in poverty is rarely about a lack of intelligence or ability
-often times people who can't get out of situational poverty end up in generational poverty WHY can't people get OUT? -individuals stay in poverty because they do not see "the choice" or if they do, they do not know how to access proper resources or people to get them to the point of actually "choosing" to organize themselves, complete assignments, behave respectfully, plan for the future, and communicate in conventional register HOW to get OUT? -schools are really the only places where students can learn about the choices and rules of the middle class or have access to people who are willing and able to help them
-HOWEVER, schools and businesses operate from middle-class norms and use the hidden rules of the middle class. These norms and hidden rules are never directly taught in schools or in businesses.
-For our students to be successful, we must understand their hidden rules and teach them the rules that will make them successful at school and at work. We can neither excuse them nor scold them for not knowing; as educators, we must teach them and provide support, assistance, and high expectations.
-to move from poverty to middle class or middle class to wealth, an individual must give up relationships for achievement Effects on Children • Poverty manipulates basically every area of a child's development
-1.7 times more likely to be born with low birth weight
-obesity is inversely related to family socioeconomic status as
-2 times more likely to repeat a grade in school
-2 times more likely to drop out of school
-3.1 times more likely to have an out-of-wedlock birth
○ Emotions and Behavior
-More likely to experience aggression, anxiety, social withdrawal, and
• In addition, each outcome of poverty influences other outcomes.
○ For example, poor health can be related to reduced cognitive ability
• The longer a child is in poverty, the more they are at risk for these problems. Severity of these conditions also increases over time.
Coping with the Problem
Parents (not just children) need to learn how to cope with the changes.
-- If parents learn how to better deal with the circumstances and adjustments, they will hopefully be able to provide better support for their children.
Teachers also have a huge impact on children in the classroom.
-- Children may spend more time at school with a teacher than they do at home with a parent.
-- Teachers need to be aware of their special role in each child's life; the economy is changing and the kids in the classrooms are therefore changing.
There has been an increase in requests for the use of school counselors; they can be a big influence in the lives of children as well.
-- School counselors could also provide some family counseling.
-- Not only are school counselors perhaps a good option for children, counselors for the parents or the family may also be a big help. "Science and technology teach us
what we can do. Humanistic thinking
can help us understand what we should
do." (Alan Brinkley, "Half a Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Waste," Newsweek) What is Situational Poverty?
Groups that help the poor classify families thrust into poverty by events, such as a natural disaster or medical crisis, as suffering “Situational Poverty”.
Poverty in Louisiana Series
September 27, 2009
Causes: “One in ten American adults told the New York Times that a lost job in their household had precipitated a major crisis in their lives. The time an unemployed worker spends looking for a new job has been increasing, while the chances of finding a job with comparable pay or benefits have fallen. The Labor Department reports that the average laid-off worker who found a new job took a 20 percent cut in pay.” Stephanie Coontz, The Way We Really Are, p. 127 Effect on Adults
•Increased financial strain
•May increase risk for a high Body Mass Index
•Worsening of Psychological symptoms and an increased risk for Depression, Somatization and Anxiety
•Increased Alcohol consumption and/or tobacco usage
•Loss of Psychosocial assets including goal and meaning in life, social support, sense of control, and time structure
Little or no electronic devices used in business operations. Invention of the computer provides programs to enter and store data. Businesses start to store data primarily on computers and electronic sources. Soon companies will be completely paperless and will have their data and information easily accessible by electronics. Most to all data recorded on paper and kept in files. Companies use programs like spreadsheet programs to create tables and charts to record information. Accounting firms and other businesses are taking advantange of electronic filing systems to store data that creates easier access to data. Companies will no longer keep data and records on paper, and instead store information primarily on electronic storage systems This will create a more sustainable business in not only minimizing resource costs, but will also be eco friendly with the elimination of paper used for data-keeping. Electronic filing systems will create a more simplified and more accessible data-fling system that more than one person can view at once. Spreadsheet programs minimize formatting and mathematical errors that could occur in manual book-keeping and data entry. All data entry is done by hand and on paper. GENERATIONAL measured by poverty status depression
By planting more trees, we can improve the air quality of our campus. The plants will filter out pollutants and slow the formation of ground-level ozone. The USDA Forest Service says that well placed trees can save 20-50 % in energy used for heating. "Landscaping can reduce air conditioning costs by up to 50 percent, by shading the windows and walls of a home." — American Public Power Association President Jo Ann M. Gora is one of the 12 founding members of the leadership circle who signed the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment. Group members Business Social One should each day , try to hear a little song, read a good poem, see a fine picture, and, if possible speak a few reasonable words. -postman What is the problem to which technology is the solution? -postman Children are neither blank tablets nor budding plants. They are consumers who need products, which makes them roughly the same as adults. -postman Ideal Society Painful Truth Fantastic Question Think about this for a second. I ask you to join in a re-United States. We need to empower our people so they can take more responsibility for their own lives in a world that is ever smaller, where everyone counts.... We need a new spirit of community, a sense that we are all in this together, or the American Dream will continue to wither. Our destiny is bound up with the destiny of every other American Watch Work Spend WE CAN CHANGE! is our nation crippled by a
fear of change? are our eyes fully open
to what's going on around us? generation gap:
a reason not to
RESPONSIBILITY Versus do we know how to
ask the right questions? are people inherently
reponsible? We do not know if we have asked the right questions or even enough
questions. if we continue to ask questions we will become responsible
for a positive change. if we give up, we have given up on change. our responsibilty as a generation is to work for the truth
and rally others around us to
disseminate that truth. does our responsibility
make us fear change? WHAT ARE THE RIGHT QUESTIONS? CAN WE END POVERTY? IS IT WORTH THE FIGHT? WHAT CAN WE DO? WILL WE TRY? the current rules do not meet "the needs of the industry, the economy, or the public," Alex Berry, Allyssa O'Donnell, Kenny Stevenson, Kelsey Waite, Emily Sullivan & Drew Hall poverty,
tech How can we benefit from sustainable practices?
How can we spread this knowledge?
Is it worth it?
What is our motivation? Is reversing climate change a social/ethical responsibility? Our ability to change Government ability Other generation's ability Communication “Knowledge is no longer an immobile solid; it has been liquefied (40).” –John Dewey “It [art] involves an idea, a thought, a spiritual rendering of things; and yet it is other than any number of ideas by themselves. It is a living union of thought and the instrument of expression (104).” –John Dewey “Cutting back on consumer goods and curbing expectations will not bring back the jobs being lost to technological change and management reorganization. Learning new skills and embracing the new technology is not enough either. It is the most modern, innovative industries that are shedding the employees that fastest. That is why it is perfectly natural for people to feel ‘the most acute job insecurity since the depression,’ and to be anxious about their families’ future prospects even when they are not yet personally threatened by job loss or economic want (125).” -Stephanie Coontz “A textbook with a search bar.” –Robert Moran Communication had its start orally, soon messages were transferred via messenger, after that telegraph was invented. The telegraph line was strectched along the raillroad to the west. soon we had national and intenational land lines.
Communication amongst those who were geographically far apart, became more of a commonplace. Cell phones, internet, skype, instant messaging email
become prevalent. wordwide communication and file sharing are used
daily in both personal and business worlds. easier web browsing with instant availabilty
of social trends, and business endeavours. connectability to third world countries. availability and projectability of others
thoughts. Talking to neighbors and family or those nearby. Slowly a mailing system was implemented. Browsing web-pages of the past. "holograms" - Nicole szoko a hardcopy of social networking history timeline. social networking of business contacts. social events: parties, sporting events, music and the arts Phonebook and collection of contact data and distribution to
masses. Facebook, myspace, email Virtual classroom, second life, avatars Geothermal Largest geothermal energy system
in the nation System will use earth as either a heat source
or a heat sink depending on the season. Will cut 80,000 tons of carbon from Ball State
emissions (about half of carbon footprint) MOGULDOM: More than any other industry, Big Media established the prototype of the modern mogul, perhaps corporate America's most damaging form of management and leadership in history.The idea of the celebrity business executive
DIMINISHED VOICES: With Big Media controlling the medium (cable television, broadcast networks, radio chains and satellite television) and the message (TV shows, movies and programming networks), the independent producer became all but extinct.
EBITDA: This acronym—it stands for Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization—became a key metric in the industry and a justification for awarding sky-high valuations to companies that, after these costs were accounted for, had very little to show in the way of profits.
WIRED BROADBAND: As one of the largest and perhaps the most innovative cable operator in the early to mid-1990s, Time Warner was a powerful leader in the development of the hybrid pipeline of coaxial cable-fiber optics that ultimately morphed into cable broadband.
DIGITAL VIDEO DISCS (DVD): The home-entertainment format ushered in the greatest gold rush in the annals of show-business history.The financial results were breathtaking. From the introduction of DVD in 1997 to 2008, Hollywood studios reaped $104 billion PROS CONS More Plants! Ball State's Council on the Environment, established in 1991, was given the Energy Patriot Award in 2007. It is the longest standing green committee within Indiana’s higher education community. The eighth Greening of the Campus Conference Series took place this fall. A recent requirement at Ball State is that all new campus construction is to meet LEED certification. A Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification addresses such building standards as energy and water efficiency, indoor environmental quality, and recycling. Ball State: Leader in Campus Sustainibility Ball State was ranked as one of the nation’s top 75 green universities in Kiwi magazine’s 2008 “Green College Report.” Bethany Duckwall
Leda Fortier Religion and Sustainability "The 11th Commandment"
Reinterpretation of Sacred Texts
Anthropocentrism and Instrumentalism
Social/Eco-Justice People will die for a dogma who will not stir for a conclusion.
-Cardinal Newman Preserving the Earth: 1990
Joint Commitment between Science and Religion Parliament of World
New Global Ethic Sustainability in the Home: Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Supplies What is the cost? The average American uses about 40 pounds of toxic household cleaning products each year The Effects Carcinogenic
Deadly to plants/animals
May cause genetic mutations
Contaminate the soil/groundwater What can be done Dispose of hazardous wastes responsibly
Home-made cleaning supplies
Support environmentally friendly companies Solar Energy! *Taken from "Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology: Solar Thermal Systems" found on the Ball State Website Pros Cons Green Energy
generates low cost commercial energy
provides another reliable source of energy
pays for itself
will become competitve in worlds energy needs
rapid scale of growth compared to others
inexhaustable/benign environmental impacts
suitable for small units
thermal burden of earth is not increased expensive to build/install
requires constant sunlight
back up supply
energy lost from recieving to providing
more costly than conventional alternatives
manufacturing uses toxic substances
only 5-15% effeciency Conclusion In the future, we will have better technology on developing new and more efficient solar power systems
The systems will be more environmentally correct.
There is a need of hybrid and alternate systems.
There is a need for more money to research our future needs for energy. Let's Generate Electicity by Walking! There is much pedestrian traffic at Ball State - why not harness it? Install in places with high traffic-scramble light, near entrances to buildings, etc.