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Proposal Writing

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Siti Aisyah Akiah

on 26 March 2018

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Transcript of Proposal Writing

A summary of ideas or plan of action
that describes in detail
how you plan
to undertake something that is presented for people to decide upon.
Proposal Writing
1. Internal vs External
1. Background of Study

2. Problem Statement

3. Objectives

4. Significance of Study

5. Limitation of Study

6. Methodology

7. Work Schedule
Background of Study
- Provides the
essential background information & context of the problem

Types of Proposal
Components of a Proposal
to seek funding for research
to persuade party(ies) involved to:
- improve condition
- authorize work
- accept service/product
- support a plan to solve problem
2. Solicited vs Unsolicited
Problem Statement
Significance of Study
Limitation of Study
Work Schedule
- Provides understanding of the issue by giving a
description & analysis of the problem
(indirectly giving reasons for its occurrence and doing the proposal)
- Provides a
clear & concise description
citing relevant sources
, of
how present knowledge about the problem has evolved
what issues remain unsolved
- Specific & adequate enough to illustrate the
difference between the ideal and the reality
between theory and practice
Background of Study (Con't)
- 3 important steps:-
General statement(s) of fact related to topic
More specific statement(s) about the issue/problem
Statement(s) that indicate the need for more investigation
- Write in detail the particular problem(s) - i.e. controversy in the field, gaps, shortcomings
- A problem statement should be presented
within a context
, and that context should be provided and
briefly explained
, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded
Problem Statement (Con't)
- the heart of your study
- Start the statement of objectives by giving
a leading or an introductory statement
, followed by the objectives of the proposal that
can be written in point form
very straightforward & brief but specific
how the results of the study may affect others
- the
readers will get
from reading / approving your proposal
* if possible rel
ate all parties within the scope
, but most studies have two potential audiences:
the population of those being studied
(Statements relating the research to both groups are in order)
- Answer the following questions:

To whom
is it important?
is your project necessary to them?
o What
possible action
should they do/
apply after reading your research?
Significance of Study (Con't)
- identifies potential weaknesses of the study
- address how your study will be narrowed in scope (how it is bounded).
e.g. the population you are not studying, the methodological procedures you will not use
- confirm
exact sample (respondents) size
Limitation of Study (Con't)
- Describe the me
thods that you are going to use in gathering information
(both primary & secondary data)
- Provide a schedule, including major milestones or checkpoints in the research/project
- Each problem may be divided into several sub problems
- Should be
, listing a
ll the important variables and circumstances
you will consider in your study (general to specific)
- It is important that the
problem stand out
-- the reader can easily recognize it
- State the problems clearly to the audience who is generally sophisticated but relatively uninformed in the area of your investigation.
- explain the
things that a reader might reasonably expect you to do but you have decided not to do
- explain the
general methodology used
in the study
- describe clearly
what would be examined or compared
- state
the location and duration taken
for the whole study to be carried out
- mention the aspects that cannot be covered in the study due to some constraints
- Include
and sampling procedure
- Explain the
processes that you plan to collect and analyse the data
- Give enough information so that your audience can understand how you will collect the needed data
By: Mdm Siti Aisyah Akiah
Information that can be included:-

(i) Definition (ii) Causes and effects
(iii) Methods (iv) Historical background
(v) Problem description (vi) Comparison of ideas
(vii) Advantages or disadvantages
Background of Study (Con't)
- the specific areas that you want to investigate in achieving the ultimate goal
“The background of the study is the introductory part of the paper that provides readers with the
framework for the research
, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research” (Wilkinson, 1991).
Different situations where
academic proposal
is needed:
3. Projects that need funding from a higher authority
1. Conducting a research
2. Investigating a certain topic of interest that may need approval from higher authority
Full transcript