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Proposal Writing

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by

Siti Aisyah Akiah

on 13 October 2015

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Transcript of Proposal Writing

Introduction
A summary of

id
eas or plan of
action
that descri
bes in detail

how you plan
to und
ertake s
omething that is presented
for pe
ople to decide upon.
Proposal Writing
Types
1. Internal vs External
Components
1. Background of Study

2. Problem Statement

3. Objectives

4. Significance of Study

5. Limitation of Study

6. Methodology

7. Work Schedule
Background of Study
- Provides the
essential background information of the problem

Outline
Introduction
Types of Proposal
Components of a Proposal
to seek funding for research
to persuade party(ies) involved to:
- improve condition
- authorize work
- accept service/product
- support a plan to solve problem
2. Solicited vs Unsolicited
Problem Statement
Objectives
Significance of Study
Limitation of Study
Methodology
Work Schedule
- Provides understanding of the issue by giving a
description & analysis of the problem
(reasons for its occurrence included)
- Provides a
clear & concise description
,
citing relevant sources
, of
how present knowledge about the problem has evolved
&
what issues remain unsolved
- Indirectly provide reasons for doing
proposal
Background of Study (Con't)
- 3 important steps:-
STEP 1
General statement(s) of fact related to topic
STEP 2
More specific statement(s) about the issue/problem
STEP 3
Statement(s) that indicate the need for more investigation
General
Specific
- Write in detail the particular problem(s)
- A problem statement should be presented
within a context
, and that context should be provided and
briefly explained
, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded
Problem Statement (Con't)
- the heart of your study
- Start the statement of objectives by giving
a leading or an introductory statement
, followed by the objectives of the proposal that
can be written in point form
-
very straightforward & brief but specific
-
how the results of the study may affect others
- the
advantages
the
readers will get
from reading / approving your proposal
* if possible rel
ate all parties within the scope
, but most studies have two potential audiences:
the population of those being studied
and
professionals
.
(Statements relating the research to both groups are in order)
- answer the following questions:

o
To whom
is it important?
o
Why
is your project necessary to them?
o What
possible action
should they do/
apply after reading your research?
(implication)
Significance of Study (Con't)
- identifies potential weaknesses of the study
- address how your study will be narrowed in scope (how it is bounded).
e.g. the population you are not studying, the methodological procedures you will not use
- confirm
exact sample (respondents) size




Limitation of Study (Con't)
- Describe the me
thods that you are going to use in gathering information
(both primary & secondary data)
- Provide a schedule, including major milestones or checkpoints in the research/project
- Each problem may be divided into several sub problems
- Should be
COMPLETE
, listing a
ll the important variables and circumstances
you will consider in your study (general to specific)
- It is important that the
problem stand out
-- the reader can easily recognize it
- State the problem clearly to the audience who is generally sophisticated but relatively uninformed in the area of your investigation.
- explain the
things that a reader might reasonably expect you to do but you have decided not to do
- explain the
general methodology used
in the study
- describe clearly
what would be examined or compared
- state
the location and duration taken
for the whole study to be carried out
- mention the aspects that cannot be covered in the study due to some constraints
- Include
population
and sampling procedure
- Explain the
processes that you plan to collect and analyse the data
- Give enough information so that your audience can understand how you will collect the needed data
By: Mdm Siti Aisyah Akiah
Information that can be included:-

(i) Definition (ii) Causes and effects
(iii) Methods (iv) Historical background
(v) Problem description (vi) Comparison of ideas
(vii) Advantages or disadvantages
Background of Study (Con't)
- the specific areas that you want to investigate in achieving the ultimate goal
“The background of the study is the introductory part of the paper that provides readers with the
framework for the research
, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research” (Wilkinson, 1991).
Different situations where
academic proposal
is needed:
3. Projects that need funding from a higher authority
1. Conducting a research
2. Investigating a certain topic of interest that may need approval from higher authority
Full transcript