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Eating Disorder - ANOREXIA

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Meghavi Patel

on 18 November 2014

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Transcript of Eating Disorder - ANOREXIA

Eating Disorder -
ANOREXIA

What is anorexia?
anorexia is an eating disorder and a serious mental illness
individuals restricted themselves from taking food because of the fear of becoming fat
the patient loses more weight than considered a healthy weight
the patient with anorexia may be underweight, but still thinks that he/she is fat
to achieve a preferred weight and shape the individual may do a lot of exercise, diet, use laxatives and other methods
this illness begins when the person is in their teen years or early adulthood
anorexia is the 3rd most chronic illness among teens

Signs and Symptoms
Physical
• extreme weight loss
• thin appearance
• abnormal blood counts
• fatigue
• dizziness or fainting
• a bluish discoloration of the fingers
• hair loss and thinning
• absence of menstruation in females
• low testosterone in males
• constipation
• dry skin
• coldness
• irregular heart beats
• low blood pressure
• dehydration
• osteoporosis
• swelling of arms or legs

Prevention
Unfortunately there is no prevention for this disorder. However, early treatment can reduce the sereneness of the illness.
Statistics
All Aspects
anorexia is the third most chronic illness in teens
a mental disorder that is more common in females, 90% and more
affects 0.3% and 1% in women
occurs more in mid to late teen years when body image is a big concern
suicide occurs in 20-30% of subjects
at some point, anorexics (over 50%) will have bulimic symptoms, usually within first five years
diagnosis is done for anorexia nervosa if the patient expects 85% less body weight than normal
5% to 20% of anorexics will die from complications
Treatment is given if the person is ill for more than two years and body weight is 25% less than normal
According to the American Journal of Psychiatry (2009) the mortality rate of anorexia is 4%

What are the causes?
there is no single cause
the National Health service of UK, says: most experts think that it is caused by a combination of biological, environmental and physiological factors
some people may have certain characteristics that may lead them to becoming anorexics
if the individual is already underweight and doesn't have a normal diet then the brain diverts thoughts related to anorexia

• a person who loves rules
• a person who diverts themselves towards depression
• fear about weight and shape
• worried, doubtful and/or scared about one's future
• a person who wants to be a perfectionist
• a person who has a negative self image
• having eating problems or disorder from childhood
• likes to follow cultural/social ideas to beauty and health
• inhibition - the individual controls their behaviour and expression

The Diagnosis
• Weight loss is the primary sign of this illness
• Psychological and emotional factors lead to this physical changes, which cannot be pictured by others
• Psychological factors can be understood by picturing the anorexic controlling their life , such as not taking in food
• This severe dieting is very important for the anorexic to achieve weight loss
• The physical changes are because of psychological changes, but the physical changes turn back to the negative psychological changes
• The attraction of physical and psychological changes makes it difficult to understand and treat the illness
• There are also many other reasons for this illness, before a diagnosis can be made

Treatment and Therapy
Treating involves three steps:
• Regaining a healthy weight
• Starting to consume more food
• Changing your thoughts on food and yourself

It’s a team approach:
• Medical doctors
• Psychologists
• Counselors
• Dieticians
• Family members (this one can make a big difference)

Risk factors associated with anorexia are:
Environmental factors: another reason of anorexia
hormonal changes in a person, during puberty
feelings of anxiety, stress and low self-esteem
exposure to media (especially in Western cultures)
messages such as thin is beautiful
others include: physical and sexual abuse, family issues, being bullied and others


according to NEDA, people with eating disorders have certain brain chemical that control digestion, appetite and hunger may be unbalanced

Biological factors: another reason for anorexia
First of all what is the difference between a sign and a symptom. A symptom is the feeling that the patient describes, such as pain. A sign can be seen by the patient or by others, such as weight loss in anorexics due to patients restrict in food intake.
• Refusal to eat
• Denial of hunger
• Afraid of gaining weight
• Lying about how much food has been eaten
• Excessive exercise
• Flat mood (lack of emotion)
• Social withdrawal
• Irritability
• Preoccupation with food
• Reduced interest in sex
• Depressed mood
• Possible use of laxatives, diet aids or herbal products

Emotional and Behavioural
The process that leads to death...
• downy hair, called lanugo grows on arms and stomach to keep the body warm when body fat is lost through starvation
• in severe conditions, fluid is collected in the brain making the brain loose mass
• in the end, body consumes its own fat, tissues, and organs for food
• this makes important organs to shrink and fail, leading to death

Medical Treatment
First, the clinicians determine if the patient is in medical danger because of restriction on food intake
Doctors take a look at the person’s heart, liver, and kidney to make sure it is functioning properly
Hospitalization is needed for severe cases
If hospitalization is not needed then outpatient treatment is done

Nutrition Treatment
Second part of treatment is nutritional counseling
The patient is taught about the illness, so they can recognize and participate in treatment
Nutritionists and dieticians will teach the patient about healthy eating and proper nutrition
Nutritionists will make up a meal plan for the patient, so they consume a healthy amount of calories
However, they have to keep in mind that the patients are experts at their illness, so they make sure that they are not acting as if they are scolding them

Counseling and therapy
for anorexia
Counseling is a very important part of treatment
The goal is to change the negative feeling about eating and replace them with positive and healthier ones
Another important part about counseling is teaching the patient how to deal with deep emotions, relationship problems and stress in a more positive over destructing ways

Further Approaches
Anorexia is treated more successfully in a combination of psychotherapy, support, education, medication, and medical and nutritional supervision
Psychotherapy can sometimes present no effect
forcing the patient to change eating behaviours are not as effective
the patient may follow those rules to get out of the hospital then they will resume their abnormal eating
health care professionals will define the problem to the patient so he/she is aware of the destruction he/she is doing to him/herself
after, they work together to accomplish common goals
there is no psychotherapy approach that is better than another
different therapy treatments will be tried after the patients realize their problem
nutritionists recommend healthy eating plans to regain weight
cognitive therapy is done to remove flaws about food, body image and dieting
family therapy is done to support and teach family members
when symptoms are more controlled then they are told about the side effects of their eating disorder, such as affecting important relationships
there is also not a single medication that is better than another
low weight may cause patients to be more affected by the side effects of medication
antidepressant medications: help with mood problems, but they don’t help to gain weight
medications won’t help the patient want to eat food or gain weight

Statistics on all Eating Disorders
What is Prevalence?

Prevalence is the statistics for an estimated number of people (categorized in different groups, such as men, women or teenagers) with an eating disorder for a certain time period.
According to a 2002 survey, “1.5% of Canadian women aged 15-24 years had an eating disorder.”
Prevalence of bulimia and anorexia is about 0.3% and 1% in teenagers and young women
Lifetime prevalence of anorexia is 0.9% in women and 0.3% in men
Out of all psychiatric illness, anorexia has the highest mortality rate, 10% of anorexics will die within 10 years of the illness
Did you know? “In 2005, more than 500, 000 Canadians struggled with an eating disorder.” (Canadian Mental Health Association)
1 in 20-30 people going through treatment are males and recently it is high as 1 in 3.
Did you know that even seniors develop an eating disorder and about 13% of females aged over 50 have symptoms for it?
27% of school girls in Ontario, aged 12-18 years had symptoms of an eating disorder


Prevalence of Eating Disorders
Worldwide Anorexia
Lifetime prevalence for females: 0.3% - 1.5% and males 0.1% - 0.5%
1 in 100 adolescence get anorexia
1 in 10 adults and 25% of children are males
1 in 5 deaths are because of suicide
Average duration is 7 years
40% have a risk of getting bulimia if they have anorexia
70% of anorexics will regain weight in first 6 months of treatment, but 15-25% will relapse within 2 years

Local Community Resources
Orillia Soldiers Memorial Hospital
Location: Orillia Soldiers' Memorial Hospital
170 Colborne St W
Orillia, ON L3V 2Z3
Service: Pediatric Eating Disorder Program
After Hours Medical Clinic (210 Memorial Avenue): 705-327-0578

School Resource
for
Mental Health Issue
OD/Park
The Phakz: website from the Simcoe County District Health Unit for teens
Mind Your Mind: website for youth and emerging adults
Do it for Daron: a program focused on raising awareness and inspiring conversation for youth mental health
The Healthy Mind: an app you can download on your phone
Kids Help Phone: speak with a counsellor on 1-800-668-6868 for help right now

Books
Bibliography
Ambrose, Marylou, and Veronica Deisler. "The Science of Eating Disorders." Investigating Eating Disorders (anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge Eating): Real Facts for Real Lives. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2011. Print.

Kirkpatrick, Jim, and J. Paul Caldwell. "Anorexia Nervosa." Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia, Binge Eating and Others. Toronto: Key Porter, 2001. Print.
Websites
"Anorexia Nervosa." Prevention. Harvard Health. Web. 14 Nov. 2014. <http://www.prevention.com/health-conditions/anorexia-nervosa>.

"EDV - Key Research & Statistics." EDV - Key Research & Statistics. Eating Disorders Victoria, 22 Nov. 2013. Web. 15 Nov. 2014. <http://www.eatingdisorders.org.au/key-research-a-statistics>.

Nordqvist, Christian. "What Is Anorexia Nervosa?" Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, 10 Oct. 2014. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/267432.php>.

"Record Details." Orillia Soldiers' Memorial Hospital, Orillia. 29 Aug. 2014. Web. 15 Nov. 2014. <http://centraleastontario.cioc.ca/record/BAR1471?UseCICVw=10>.

"Section D - Eating Disorders." Section D - Eating Disorders. Government of Canada, 13 May 2013. Web. 15 Nov. 2014. <http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-619-m/2012004/sections/sectiond-eng.htm#a1>.

Smith, Melinda, and Jeanne Segal. "Anorexia Nervosa." : Signs, Symptoms, Causes, And Treatment. Helpguide.org, 1 Nov. 2014. Web. 14 Nov. 2014. <http://www.helpguide.org/articles/eating-disorders/anorexia-nervosa.htm>.

"Statistics." National Eating Disorder Information Centre (NEDIC). Web. 15 Nov. 2014. <http://www.nedic.ca/know-facts/statistics>.

"Stats." Hopewell Stats Comments. Web. 15 Nov. 2014. <http://www.hopewell.ca/?page_id=113>.

"Support for Students." ODPark Street. Web. 15 Nov. 2014. <http://odpark.wordpress.com/departments/guidance/support-for-students/>.


Image Sites
http://cdn.medindia.net/images/patientinfo/300x250/anorexia-nervosa1.jpg
http://citylifecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/IMG_7572.gif
http://studentsforliberty.org/europe/files/2013/09/nhs.jpg
http://redpointcoaching.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/perfectionist-image.jpg
http://www.clker.com/cliparts/Q/5/e/3/i/D/negative-self-talk-md.png
http://www.littleabout.com/cim/anorexia.jpg
http://blogs-images.forbes.com/insider/files/2014/11/social_media_strategy111.jpg
http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v16/n12/images/nm1210-1382-F1.jpg
http://section5anorexia.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/eating-disorder-3.gif
http://1aqu4j2q4p6v22zy4k1s6hw1udj.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/woman-running-at-sunset.png
http://www.healthychildren.org/SiteCollectionImages/Warning_signs_anorexia.jpg
http://img2.timeinc.net/health/img/web/2013/01/slides/anorexia-hair-400x400.jpg
http://www.rocketswag.com/health/images/How-Do-Doctors-Diagnose-Anorexia-Nervosa.jpg
http://www.websterwellnessprofessionals.com/images/time-to-heal.jpg
http://www.seattlechildrens.org/kids-health/image/ial/images/4637/4637_image.png
http://www.anad.org/wp-content/themes/anad/images/banner_treatment-centers.jpg
http://www.asnutrition.org/disorders/images/img08.jpg
http://cdn.natural-homeremedies.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/nutritional-counseling.jpg
http://www.understandinganorexia.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/anorexia-nervosa-recovery.jpg
http://www.bulimia.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/eating-disorder-therapist.jpg
http://img.webmd.com/dtmcms/live/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/articles/health_tools/eating_disorders_overview_slideshow/getty_rm_photo_of_woman_taking_antidepressant.jpg
http://www.pavliks.com/images/partner-logos/osmh-logo.jpg?sfvrsn=2
http://www.scdsb.on.ca/About%20Us/PublishingImages/SCDSB_Horizontal_Colour.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7c/Kids_Transparent_Logo.png
http://cdn.medicalxpress.com/newman/gfx/news/hires/2014/healthyminda.jpg
http://www.crystalinks.com/anorexia2.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-DPRRvE9hhZA/UQrEMxxmLGI/AAAAAAAAC2w/AJU-jRE4SCQ/s1600/Anorexic%2BModel%2B2.jpg
http://www.balletmoves.org/wp-content/uploads/Anorexic%20Ballet%20Dancers.jpg
http://www.stmichaelsgeneva.org/assets/bible-Sunlight.jpg
Church Scripture
Jonah 2:5-7 ESV

"The waters closed in over me to take my life; the deep surrounded me; weeds were wrapped about my head at the roots of the mountains. I went down to the land whose bars closed upon me forever; yet you brought up my life from the pit, O Lord my God. When my life was fainting away, I remembered the Lord, and my prayer came to you, into your holy temple."

http://www.openbible.info/topics/mental_illness

From Faith Perspective about Mental Illness
“Why do Christians feel a need to seek the advice or help of another person, when Christ should be all that we need? We don’t need psychiatrists to fix us or depression medication to relieve us. There is deliverance in the Word of God. There is breakthrough in the Word of God. There is healing in the Word of God. Every situation that we endure, there is a word for us. To seek out these other methods is to not trust God.”
- Hemant Mehta
http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/cw/post.php?id=703
By: Meghavi Patel
Full transcript