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Dual Chap 3

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Michael Scarborough

on 14 September 2018

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Transcript of Dual Chap 3

Colonial Society and Economy
- Life in the Chesapeake region was harsh
- Difficulties of Chesapeake life:

- Even though life was unhealthy, many settlers still came to region because of tobacco, 1.5 mil lbs of tobacco in 1630s
-To deal with inflation, needed to plant more, thus needed more labor
Indentured Servants
- Indentured servants chosen instead of natives, because they died too quickly (mostly due to disease) or ran away, slaves too expensive
- Most were young men from England, agreed to 4 to 7 years of service, in exchange they gained free passage, and "freedom dues" at the end of their term
-Head-right system encouraged planters to pay for servants to come over, (50 acres given for every person brought over)leads to creation of the great merchant planter class in America
- 100,000 brought to Chesapeake, and life was tough, as land became more scarce, less masters gave out dues
Bacon's Rebellion
This is ANGRY BACON!!!!
-As more young men grew discontent in Chesapeake, Gov. William Berkeley disenfranchised them
-Nathaniel Bacon organizes rebels in response to Berkeley not responding to brutal N/A attack
-Bacon attacked N/As, chased Berkeley from Jamestown
-Berkeley responded with deadly force, forced planters to chose better sources of labor
This is also ANGRY BACON!!!
- Most early slaves brought to West Indies for sugar plantations, creates Barbados Slave Code
-Why African slaves?

-1698 Royal African Company lost its monopoly on slave imports
-Slaves brought from West Africa to America by Middle Passage
- Due to increase of slavery, colonies passed "slave codes":
Slavery III
-Despite hardships, African culture still influenced American society
-Some slaves still rose up against whites (NY, SC) but the extent was nothing compared to Bacon, slavery quickly begins to replace Indentured servants, but why?
Southern Planter Society Hierarchy
Wealthy Plantation Owners
Small Farmers
Landless Whites
N v S



New England
-New England's economy and society defined by several factors:
1. Geography/Soil
2. Religion - Calvinism "Protestant Work Ethic"
3. Climate
-Leads to NE to chose different style of life that is generally healthier then South, less dependent on cash crops and more geared towards Industry
Colonial Growth
- By 1700 American population was booming, with Americans doubling their population every 25 years
- 1775, for every one English subject, were 3 Americans, much of the population was young
-Much of the population growth lies in VA, MA, PA, NC and MD, with only a few cities in 1775 (most notably Philadelphia)
-Population very mixed in America with Germans, Scot Irish, and a diverse amount of other groups
-Set the stage for America emerging as one of the most diverse countries on the planet on the eve of the Revolution
American Social Hierarchy
- 18th Century America, compared to Europe was relatively free of class stratification, most Americans were poor farmers, no extremes in poor or wealth
- Exceptions: War widows and orphans who survived on charity, super wealthy merchant land owners
- Late 1700s, society began to be more divided, wealth not equally distributed in South, indentured servants and convicts also shipped into America

- Agriculture leading industry in America, Tobacco in MD, VA
- Middle colonies produced lots of grain
- Fishing also prominent, especially in NE
- Shipbuilding, trade and commerce also define NE (PA and NY)
- Triangle Trade becomes very profitable
-Eve of Revolution, thanks to demand for goods in America and waning demand in GB, more and more goods shipped to other countries
-Britain, worried about trade with France, passes Molasses Act, which Americans ignore
- Two established tax supported churches existed in America in 1700s, the Anglican and Congregational, but most Americans did not even belong to one
- Very tolerant of religions (in certain areas)
- By 1700s, church membership and spirituality was falling thanks to increasing liberalism/ Arminianism/etc
- By 1730s, religious revival emerged reacting to liberalism, known as Great Awakening
- First began in MA and Johnathan Edwards, took very harsh view of religion, fully in Predestination "Hands of an Angry God"
Impacts of Awakening:
-First spontaneous mass movement
- Created schisms, more competition
- Increase missionary work amongst Natives and Slaves
- Increased emphasis on education
- Massively increased participation in Religion
Colonial Written Culture
-Except for a few exceptions, American culture was either imported from Europe or discounted, painters, writers etc mostly had to go to London to train
-Benjamin Franklin the exception, Poor Richard's Almanack, which contained homespun wisdom, morality, common sense, etc
- Printing Presses of Colonial America displayed thirst for written word as well as basis of freedom of the press (such as with the Zenger Trial)
- Much of the intellectual movement in Colonial America inspired by
Colonial Government
- Colonies utilized two-house legislation, upper house appointed by the colonies, and the lower house by the people
- Prolonged bickering about taxation, differences between colonial governments and the home country led to the fermenting of unrest prior to war
Colonial Way of Life
- Puritans from N.E. ran their churches like a democracy, known as a Congregational Church (early display of how America became Democratic)
- As time went on Puritans began to worry that religious zeal was lessening, Jeremiads or "God fearing sermons" warned about waning values
- Only the elect could have a voice in politics or governance in Puritan society, but in 1622 the Half-Way Covenenant was put forward which allowed non baptized adults to have their children allowed into the Puritan elect
- At this time the Salem Witch Trials occurred where 20 individuals were executed (by hanging and pressing) plus two dogs
- What caused this?
"They did what?!?!?!?"
Compare and Contrast
Colonial Women
- Women in the colonies were delegated to the domestic sphere, and to be subservient to men/husbands/fathers
- What options did women have for jobs?

- What health issues did women have to cope with?
The Enlightenment
- The Enlightenment is an intellectual and philosophical movement that begins in Europe in the 1600s and subsequently moves to the Americas
- Enlightenment stressed reason, rational thought, logic, science and empiricism
- Famous Enlightenment thinkers such as Copernicus, Newton and especially John Locke who stressed natural law and natural rights
- Many founding fathers embraced Enlightenment values, such as with Deism which believes in a rational God that does not interfere in human matters (God as a watchmaker)
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