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Unit 6 APUSH
Transcript of Unit 6 APUSH
1) Politics: Hard Money v. Soft Money (1870s and 1890s); tariffs (1880s); Corruption - greed, patronage and trusts.
2) Industrialization: US became the world's most powerful economy by the 1890s: railroads, oil, steel, banking.
3) Shift from rural, agrarian country to an industrial, urban country between 1865 and 1920.
4) Unions and Reform Movements: curbs the effects of this shift.
5) Reform movements shifted to address agrarian needs (Populism)
6)"The Last West": farming, mining, cattle
7) Wealth/class stratification: unlike previous US history.
Election of 1868
-- General Ulysses S. Grant v. Horatio Seymour
-- Grant won, although barely: margin of victory: 300,000 votes (although much stronger in the electoral college).
-- Freedmen gave Grant 500,000 votes.
Force Acts of 1870 and 1871
Grant and Corruption
Panic of 1873
Laws passed that gave the President power to punish "any person, by force, bribery, threats, intimidation, or other unlawful means, [who] shall hinder, delay, prevent, or obstruct...any citizen from [registering] to vote or from voting at any election".
Grant used these laws to target the Ku Klux Klan, suspending habeas corpus to arrest leaders of the Klan, and try them in federal court. The Acts were so successful that the Klan died out by the mid-1870s (which is not to say white supremacy died out, nor was the Klan permanently dead).
1) Credit Mobilier scandal: sham railroad company milked investors out of millions of dollars related to railroad construction projects in the West; the company gave shares in its company to members of Congress and the Vice President, Schuyler Colfax. Although Grant was not directly involved, it was his vice president...
2) Whiskey Ring: 1875: government agents and politicians working with whiskey distillers and distributors diverted money from excise tax payments into their own wallets. Grant promised to "let no man escape" which was a little embarrassing when his personal secretary was found to be involved.
3) Tweed Ring: Not Grant but a sign of the times anyway: "Boss" William Tweed: head of New York Democratic Party and Tammany Hall, a Democratic political "machine" in NYC: used bribery and graft to line his and his organization's pockets, while also providing jobs and services for his constituents (mainly poor Irish immigrants).
- Led to a depression which lasted until 1879
- Worst economic downturn at this point in US history.
- Caused many Americans to focus more on pocket book issues, rather than moral issues associated with equality and justice in Reconstruction.
- Set up hard money v. soft money debate that would pervade economic politics in the 1890s:
"Hard Money" = money backed by gold; hard money limits the amount of money in circulation and therefore raises its value.
"Soft Money" = money backed by gold and silver; allows more money to be in circulation, and therefore lowers its value.
Effects of Corruption
Election of 1872: Liberal Republican Party: faction of the Republican Party that broke with Grant over alleged corruption.
- Free trade
- Hard Money (more later)
- end of Reconstruction
- Restoration of rights for former Confederates.
- Civil Service Reform
Horace Greeley, a newspaper editor from NYC, ran as the Liberal Republican/Democratic candidate against Grant in 1872. Grant trounced Greeley.
But, the Republican Party co-opted several ideas from the LRP:
- General Amnesty Act of 1872: all but 500 ex-Confederates pardoned.
- Reduction in Civil War tariffs.
Election of 1876
Grant didn't feel like running again:
- Democrat: Samuel Tilden
- Republican: Rutherford B Hayes
Although Tilden had more electoral votes than Hayes (as well as overall votes), he missed a majority by 1. Due to the rampant corruption on both sides, the electoral votes of South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana were in dispute. A commission was set up to figure out what to do.
Compromise of 1877: in return for financing internal improvements in the South, nominating a Southern Democrat to his cabinet, and for withdrawing Federal Troops from the former Confederacy, Southern Democrats would support Hayes for President.
The withdrawal of Federal troops from the South marked the end of Reconstruction, as well as the end of most of the gains made by freedmen in the decade after the Civil War. "Redeemed" southerners consolidated political power and passed laws restricting the political, social, and economic power of southern Blacks.
Politics of the Gilded Age
Seriously, why would you want to waste your mental energy on James Garfield, Chester Arthur and Benjamin Harrison?
Two Party Stalemate/balance:
- Immigrant Germans and Irish in northern cities
- "Solid South": bitter southerners mad at Republicans for the Civil War
- Party emphasized economic equity
- traced lineage to Puritanism: stressed strict moral codes and personal morality: government should promote WASP values (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant)
- Support from northern businessmen: wealthy know what's best for the country.
- Support in the Midwest and small towns in the northeast.
- Heavy support from African-Americans (Party of Lincoln)
- Grand Army of the Republic (fraternal org. of 100,000 Union vets.
Regardless of who was in power, the government as a whole was very laissez faire: it delivered the mail, paid for the army, collected taxes, and did very little else.
This may have been because of, or in spite or, a very corrupt political system. Party bosses controlled who ran for office. Office holders were expected to divert federal dollars towards key political supporters.
Ex.: Tammany Hall: Democratic political machine in NYC: Tammany Hall would use bribery and graft in order to divert construction projects to Democratic supporters. Those supporters would then hire Irish immigrants, who would vote Democratic out of loyalty, thus giving the Democrats more power.
This corruption was equal opportunity. The Republican Party did it too. It was similar to the Spoils System.
Expectations at political appointments/rewards led to the assassination of James Garfield (elected 1880), who was shot by a deranged freak who thought that he deserved a job in the Garfield Administration. When he did not get one, he decided to blow Garfield away, allowing Vice President Chester Arthur to become President (who, the thinking went, would then give him a job)(qualifications: steady hands, familiarity with hand guns, nerves of steel, word processing).
Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)
- Merit system for making appointments.
- Civil Service Commission: open, competitive examinations for applicants for posts in federal government.
Not to be confused with "Old Immigration" (pre-1850) which consisted primarily of immigrants from Britain and Western Europe. Starting in 1840/1850, immigration from Ireland and Germany picked up.
New Immigration: 27 million immigrants, primarily from Eastern and Southern Europe (Italians, Jews, Poles, Greeks, Czechs(!), etc.)
- Most came through Ellis Island, NY.
- Many were Orthodox Christians, Catholics or Jews.
- Usually poor and illiterate.
- Settled in major industrial cities in the northeast and Midwest.
Reasons for immigration:
- overpopulation in Europe
- U.S. seen as "land of opportunity": "Give us your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free"
- Industrialists and steam ship operators in the US encouraged immigrants to come (cheap labor, passage on shipping lines)
- Escape from persecution.
Burlingame Treaty (1868) allowed unrestricted immigration from China to build transcontinental railroad.
- although many returned to China, thousands stayed, settling primarily in California.
- Bad economic times caused by the Panic of 1873 caused resentment among white workers towards Chinese immigrants.
- Workingman's Party of California: called for the exclusion of Chinese from California and the U.S.
- Chinese Exclusion Act (1882): ended Chinese immigration to the U.S. (repealed 1943)
Reaction to New Immigration
-- Political machines catered to new immigrants: Tammany Hall found jobs, housing, food, etc for new immigrants (to get their political support once they became citizens).
-- Social Crusaders: sought to improve conditions in cities where immigrants settled: Salvation Army, etc.
-- Settlement House Movement: Jane Addams - Hull House; "community center" for immigrants in Chicago: English lessons; social gatherings, classes in nutrition and health.
-- Nativism: reaction against new immigrants: new immigrants considered to be culturally or religiously inferior; concerned new immigrants would take all the jobs, etc.
The West and the Closing of the Frontier
Analyze the extent to which "The West" has affected American society, politics and economics.
"Up to our own day American history has been in a large degree the history of the colonization of the Great West. The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward, explain American development."
- Frederick Jackson Turner. 1893
Mineral rich areas were the first areas to be extensively settled (duh). - Think California in the 1840s-1850s.
- Prospectors would find a vein of a mineral (copper, lead, tin, quartz, zinc, gold, silver)
- Commercial mining would move in to the area.
- Ranchers and farmers followed
- Towns would spring up to support mining and farming.
Comestoke Lode: 1859
- First major deposit of silver, Virginia City, Nevada.
- Between 1859 and 1878, the Comestock lode yielded $400 million in sliver and gold (worth approx. $500 billion in 2005 dollars).
- 1864: population of Nevada sufficient for statehood.
- primarily Colorado, Wyoming, Montana
- Copper needed due for telegraph, telephone and electric wires.
Completion of the Trancontinental Railroad facilitated transportation of agricultural goods, primarily meat, to cities. Meat-packing cities sprung up along the railroad at junctions: Omaha, Kansas City, Abilene, Chicago. Refrigerated cars allowed the meat to be processed and transported to cities back east.
The cattle were "driven" from larger land holding in the interior to these junctions: cowboys (adapted from techniques used by Spanish and Mexican ranchers).
Eventually, this practice came to an end: settlers on the Great Plains used barbed wire to enclose homesteads. Also, ranchers started enclosing their own ranchers in order to have more control over their stock.
Homestead Act (1862)
- Settlers could acquire 160 acres of land for about $30/year. Required to live on it for 5 years, and improve it.
- Land was practically given away by Federal Government in order to settle the West.
New states: North and South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, Wyoming
Oklahoma Land Rush (1889): US made Oklahoma territory available to white settlement.
New technology: Steel Plow, Mechanical Reaper, Barbed Wire, Steel Windmill, “soddy”
Safety Valve Theory: idea that the west served as a "safety valve" for problems in the east: unemployed workers encouraged to move west.
- Standardization: Trans-Continental Railroad, timezones.
- New cities: Omaha, Abilene, Chicago, Kansas City
- New industries: beef, train cars (Pullman)
- Corruption: Credit Mobilier
- Abuse of monopoly
- Human rights: Chinese Exclusion Act; impact on Native Americans.
Homesteaders migrating west ran into the Indian tribes that were either indigenous to the plains, or who had been pushed there through previous generations of white settlement. The U.S. government at times negotiated with Indian leaders in an effort to negotiate westward migrations. The U.S. government also tended to ignore these treaties once they were signed.
- 1st Treat of Ft Laramie (1851): Indians agree to allow free passage on Oregon Trail in return for U.S. giving Indians free reign on the Great Plains. Discovery of gold at Pike's Peak, Colorado led to widespread ignoring of this treaty.
-2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868): Treaty to close the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming to white settlement. Within a decade, gold was discovered in the Black Hills and white settlers invalidated the treaty.
Period from 1860 - 1890 was one of frequent conflict. U.S. sent army to Great Plains to protect white settlers.
- most of the troops were Civil War vets.
- "Buffalo Soldiers": black soldiers organized during the Civil War whose units were then sent west to fight Indians.
- Sand Creek Massacre: 1864: Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians who had been forced onto a reservation due to gold mining in Colorado massacred by U.S. army forces: 400 killed.
- Fetterman's Massacre: 1866: Sioux Indians attack U.S. troops in Wyoming, killing 41 soldiers.
- Little Big Horn (1876): "Custer's Last Stand": Indian/US army engagement over violation of the 2nd Treaty of Ft Laramie.
- Wounded Knee: 1890: last major engagement: U.S. troops sent to enforce ban on the "Ghost Dance": 300 Sioux, 60 U.S. soldiers killed: effectively ended Indian resistance on the Great Plains.
By 1890, most Indians had been moved onto "reservations".
- Had roots in the Indians Removal Act
- Codified in 1851, with the Indian Appropriations Act, which granted Oklahoma Territory as Indian reservation.
- Bureau of Indian Affairs: section of the Department of the Interior created in 1824: tasked with negotiating treaties with Native Americans.
- Dawes Act (1887): divide reservations into 160 acre "allotments" for individual Indian families; Indians would get title to the land and citizenship after 25 years, provided they "adopted the habits of civilized life" -> Assimilation.
Results: Indians eventually lose title to 2/3 of the reservation land.
- Indians granted full citizenship in 1924.
Farmers Revolt: raise less corn and more hell
Farmers were pretty angry for 3 reasons: tariffs, trusts and currency.
Tariffs: McKinley Tariff (1890): Raised import tariffs by 50%; Tariffs primarily pushed by Republican Party, which was increasingly allied with Big Business.
15 states passed anti-trust acts in the 1880s. Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act in 1890, but it was severely weakened by the Supreme Court in U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co. (1895).
Currency also continued to be a hot button: the size of the economy was outpacing the supply of currency issued. Republican Party favored the gold standard (value of a dollar pegged to the price of gold)
While these issues caused much concern, particularly in the west and south, agricultural overproduction was the chief cause of economic distress in the 1890s. Distressed farmers looked towards more tangible villains: railroads, bankers, monopolists. The movement that grew out of this discontent represented the first American challenge to Social Darwinism and Laissez Faire economics.
- National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry: The Grange (1867)
- Provided social and educational opportunities
- Established cooperatives (grain elevators, dairies, coop stores) to negotiate better deals on behalf of farmers.
- Politics: representatives in Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota elected to Congress.
Granger Laws -> regulated rates railroads could charge -> Munn v. Illinois: (1877): states can regulate private property in interest of public interest. Overturned in 1886: Wabash v. Illinois: Only Congress can regulate interstate commerce -> Granger Laws weakened.
- Interstate Commerce Act (1887): provided all charges by railroads should be "reasonable and just;" established Interstate Commerce Commission.
Farmers' Alliances: (South - 1887; Midwest - 1880; Colored -> 1889).
- Acted like Grange: social events, cooperatives, etc.
- Supported Knights of Labor.
- Demanded free silver (use of more silver in coining money -> inflation);
- Creation of subtreasury to loan farmers money based on future sales of crops.
Election of 1892
- Grover Cleveland (Democrat)
- James Weaver (Populist)
- Benjamin Harrison (Republican)
- Omaha Platform
- Free silver
- Graduated income tax
- Government ownership of railroads, telegraphs, etc.
- Power to the People: Initiative/referendum/recall.
- Postal savings banks
- land grants limited to settlers (no railroads)
- direct election of Senators
- 8 hour workday
Omaha platform adopts several Knights of Labor ideas in an effort to broaden its electoral appeal
Cleveland wins, although the Populists did receive more than 1 million votes, a first for a 3rd Party.
Grover had problems.
- Homestead Strike (1892)
- Panic of 1893 (Depression lasted until 1897)
- Pullman Strike (1894)
Election of 1896
- William McKinley (Republican)
- William Jennings Bryan (Democrat - supported by Populists)
Democratic Platform: unlimited coinage of silver
Cross of Gold Speech: We will answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them: 'you shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
Wizard of Oz
Legacy of Populism
1896 election and the Wizard of Oz (L. Frank Baum)
Oz can be used as a parable for the election (in reality it is coincidental)
- Dorothy – represents everyman of the west; seen as pure and likeable
- Yellow Brick Road = Gold standard
- Dorothy’s silver slippers = Soft Money (no one knows how to use their power)
- Scarecrow = Midwestern farmers (seen as stupid but actually have wisdom)
- Tin Man = Eastern Labor victimized by Wicked Witch of the East
- Wizard and city of OZ = Eastern Establishment, or William McKinley
- Cowardly Lion with Big Roar and no bite = William Jennings Bryan
- Wicked Witch of the East = Corporations of Eastern Finance
- OZ = An ounce of gold or silver
- Flying monkeys = plains Indians once free but now subdued by witch.
- Wicked Witch of the West = Harsh frontier environment (drought, tornados)
- Water = boon that will thwart drought (kills Wicked Witch of the West)
Populism failed as a 3rd Party cause but had a political influence for 25 years after its defeat in the 1896 elections.
Populist ideas that carried forward during the Progressive Era (1900-1920): - railroad legislation
- graduated income tax
- direct election of Senators
- initiative, referendum and recall
- postal savings banks
- subtreasury plan
Populist ideas were geared to rural life. Yet, many of its ideas appealed to the urban progressives.
Second Industrial Revolution: New Technology
Although the Civil War and Reconstruction profoundly affected the politics and social life of the US in the decades after the Civil War, economically, the US was in a position to take off with the burdens of war and strife receding into memory:
- Gold: California gold rush of the 1840s led to increased prospecting throughout the West.
- "Useful" minerals: copper, lead, zinc, quartz, etc.
- Iron: Bessemer Process: allowed iron to be converted to steel relatively easily and cheaply.
- Oil: first oil strike in USA: Titusville, Pennsylvania, 1859: initially used for lubrication, then turned into kerosene.
- typewriters, telephones, cash registers, electric lights
- popular entertainment: cameras, phonographs, bicycles,
amusement parks, professional sports (baseball).
- transportation: faster railroads, subways, streetcars.
Pacific Railway Act (1862): connect west coast states to the east: Transcontinental Railroad.
- Union Pacific Railroad: west from Omaha
- Central Pacific Railroad: east from Sacramento
East met West at Promontory Point, Utah: May 10, 1869.
Rise of the Robber Barons
Railroad construction allowed for those who controlled the railroads to make a ton of money. The term "Robber Baron" was used to describe individuals who did very well in the new economy, sometime through less than honest means.
Cornelius Vanderbilt: popularized steel rail: but used ruthless tactics to destroy competition.
Jay Gould: controlled 10,000 miles of railroad in the west: able to set the rates for travel.
Gould, Vanderbilt and others used their wealth and power to amass more wealth and power:
- bribed judges and legislatures for favorable rulings
- formed "pools": alliances with other businesses to establish prices, protect territory and profits.
John D. Rockefeller: Standard Oil: pioneered "trusts": buying up all competing businesses to create a monopoly ("horizontal integration")
Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie Steel: "vertical integration": controlling all aspects of production process.
Regardless of who was in power, the government as a whole was very laissez faire: it delivered the mail, paid for the army, collected taxes, and did very little else.
This "unventilated and fever-breeding structure" the
year after it was built was picked out by the Council of Hygiene, then just organized, and presented to the Citizens' Association of New York as a specimen "multiple domicile" in a desirable street, with the following comment: "Here are twelve living-rooms and twenty-one bedrooms, and only six of the latter have any provision or possibility for the admission of light and air, excepting through the family sitting- and living-room; being utterly dark, close, and unventilated. The living-rooms are but 10 x 12 feet; the bedrooms 6 x 7 feet."
"How the Other Half Lives"
- Farmers' Alliances morphed into the People's Party (Populist Party) in the early 1890s.
- Populist Party Platform: subtreasury, free silver, income tax, government ownership of railroads, telephones and telegraph.
- Populist Party efforts in the South initially sought to unite poor black and white farmers: "You are made to hate each other because upon that hatred is rested the keystones of the arch of financial despotism which enslaves you both."
- Most Southern Populists, aligned with the Democrats, succeeded in passing laws disenfranchising Black voters in the South (Jim Crow Laws) and codifying segregation (Plessy v. Ferguson: 1896: "separate but equal" in public accommodations is legal).
The People's Party/Populist Party