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Transcript of FOOD
What are GMO's
GMO: Genetically Modified Organism
Genetically modified organisms are plants or animals that have been genetically engineered with DNA from bacteria, viruses, or other plants and animals (Non-GMO project, 2014)
3 Main Components
How are GM Food's Produced?
1.) Isolating the gene
2.) Selecting the organism
3.) Choosing the Vector
The DNA is cut by a restriction endonuclease.
The trans-gene is then inserted into a vector that is capable of getting inside the cell of the target species.
This entire process is manipulated by scientists
Why are GM Foods Produced? (Non-GMO Project, 2014)
Initial goal: To increase crop prouction
To introduce of a gene that is resistant against herbicides and plant diseases
Producting more desiease resistant crops equals more crop production and lower consumer costs
But is the lower price worth the risk?
Most Common GM Products
Corn, Soy, Yellow squash, Zucchini, Papaya, Canola Oil, Sugar Beets, Milk, Cotton Seed Oil
Apples that don't turn brown for an entire two weeks after you slice them.
Scientist are now able to deactivate the gene that causes the apples to turn brown (Young, 2014).
Main Issue of Concern for Human Health
Are GM Foods Safe?
Long term effects of eating GM diet are unknown.
Most developed nations do not consider GMOs to be safe.
Biggest concern is the unpredictability.
Government still allows production although research indicates GMs harm the human health
"An ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. Based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony." (US National Organic Standards Board)
The term dates back to the 1940s
Conventional Farming Vs. Organic Farming
Pro: High crop yields
Con: Synthetic chemicals that is detrimental to the environment and humans.
Alternative solution to the destruction
Those with large land areas are devoted to organic farming
Australia, Argentina, Italy, and the USA
Europe has overall largest area of organic farming community Gardens
New York and Vermont
Cuba: Organoponic Production
Costa Rica: Eco-Villages
Typical time period is 3-5 years
The conventional grower must learn
A different management system (dealing with a more diverse selection of crops)
More knowledge of their crops
Climate, soil types, crop rotations and pest problems
Perennial grass (grows in summer and dormant in winter)
Pasture grass for humid and sandy coastal soils
When the roots of the bahiagrass die they leave channels
The channels help improve rooting depth, root area, length and biomass of crops
Leguminous cover crops; beneficial for soil quality and crop yeild (short-term)
Prevent soil erosion, increase soil organic matter, improve soil water retention
Essential during early stages of farming
Improve soil health
Help with nutrient cycling
Major source of nutrients is plant material (green manures and composts)
Snap peas, greeen beans, and clover help supply extra nutrients
Animal and chicken manures can be used as well
Fields with a history of low weed counts
Cover crops (millet, oats, soybean, clover)
Seed mixtures should be chosen based on time of year
Major issue during transition is weed management (Bermuda grass and teaweed)
More labor-intensive than conventional
Labor requirements is farm-and operation-specific
15-70% high amount of labor needed than conventional
During transition yields are low
Generally 32-42% lower than conventional farming
More land is needed to achieve same yield
More research could hlep raise the yeild
Two growing seasons, but then can be used to:
Harvesting seed crop
Problem: if renting the land it is hard to pay during the off seasons
Have to focus on long-term vision & push through short-term losses
It can take over 3 yrs before field is certified as organic
"All Forms of activities connected with growing, harvesting, and primary processing of all types of crops with the breeding, raising and caring for animals & with tending gardens and nurseries."
Safety and health in agriculture International Labour Organization. 1999. pp.77. ISBN 978-92-2-1115175
Eat Local, Kalamazoo!
1.) Taste: Fresher is better
5.) Community Spirit
5 Reasons to Eat Local
Good Food Kalamazoo
Collaboration among individuals/organizations working towards a healthy local food system
Mission Statement: To Engage & Empower our community to provide itself with food that is healthy, green, fair and affordable.
Growing Matters Garden Program
"Strives to provide garden-based, hands-on-learning opportunities for local youth and larger community."
Every Monday 7-8pm, June-August
Borgess's Farmer's Market
"To promote good nutrition and health, the Farmer's Market at Borgess will sell a wide range of delicious and nutritious foods grown in Southwest Michigan for members of the public."
11:00 am to 2:00 pm
Every other Thursday
Women Infant and Children
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program
Serves to safeguard the health of low income pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women, infants and children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk.
Improved Birth Outcomes & Savings in Health Care Costs
Improved Diet-Related Outcomes
Improved Infant Feeding Practices
Immunization Rates and Regular Sources of Medical Care
Improved Cognitive Development
Improved Preconceptional Nutritional Status
No use of synthetic chemicals; fewer health hazzards; less environmental pollution
What is Fair Trade?
"From faraway farms to your shopping cart."
"We help farmers in developing countries build sustainable businesses that positively influence their communities."
-FAIR TRADE USA
Quality Products, Improving Lives, Protecting the Planet
Ideological roots traced back to 1860 & the publication of Max Havelaar
Western Michigan University
The Fair Trade Movement
Fair trade marketing in Europe, late 1950s
History of fair trade in North America, 1946
The Value of Fair Trade is Rapidly Growing
The Fair Trade Federation (2003) reports sales in the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan of $251 million in 2002.
Ethical Turns in the Market
The growth of the fair-trade movement is the results of an "ethical turn"
mainstreaming of socially responsible products.
NOT always ethical but advertised as to be
Consumers are becoming more concerned with:
Who makes the product
How the producer benefits
How the environment is impacted
"Jumping on the Green Bandwagon"
"Going Green has become trendy"
Fair Trade Food Supply Chain
Operating within developing nations: village or community groups/cooperatives offering social and marketing services
1.) Promoters: Active group of store owners, fair-trade NGO employees, consumer activists
3 Types of roles
2.) Conscientious consumers: Like to buy fair trade but are not ommitted to it everyday
3.) Purchasers: Know little about fair trade but buy for the price, taste, or utility
Second level in supply chain: Importers and Wholesalers
Center of the fair trade movement