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Water Cycle + Freshwater Wetland Food Web
Transcript of Water Cycle + Freshwater Wetland Food Web
Trophic Level 4
During this step,
the sun is heating up
This makes the air
become moist and
warm, which then
rises. While the moist,
warm air rises, it starts
to cool down. Finally,
the water vapor
condenses into tiny
droplets that forms clouds.
Rising air currents move the water vapor clouds around the earth
Cloud particles fall, collide, grow, and fall out of the sky as precipitation. Some of the precipitation can fall in the form of snow and accumulate on the ground as ice caps or glaciers. The ice usually stays over the winter and thaws in the spring and the water flows overland. The other forms of precipitation are rain, sleet, or hail. Most of the precipitation falls back into the ocean or land, since the gravity causes the precipitation to flow over the ground.
A portion of the runoff flows into rivers in the valleys in the landscapes, with stream flow moving the water towards the ocean. The runoff and underground seepage accumulates and is stored as freshwater in lakes.
Much of the runoff soaks into the ground in a process known as infiltration. Some of the water infiltrates into the ground and replenishes subsurface rock, which stores large amounts of freshwater for long periods of time. Some infiltration seeps back into lakes, rivers, and oceans as groundwater discharge, and some infiltration emerges through the land as freshwater springs. Over time, all of this water keeps moving, some into the ocean, where the water cycle restarts.
The food web of a freshwater wetland starts out when plants, which are the producers, get energy from the sun. These plants take up trophic Level 1. The herbivores in this ecosystem, that make up trophic level 2, eat the producers and take 10% of the energy. The next group, the carnivores, trophic level 3, go and eat the herbivores from trophic level 2, and they receive 10% of their energy, so 1% overall. The last group, which makes up trophic level 4, is a top-level carnivore, which means it eats other carnivores. These organisms receives 10% of the energy from its preys last meal, which gives it 0.1% of the total energy that the plants, trophic level 1, got from the sun. The scavengers and decomposers can be anywhere on the web since they will eat anything.
During this process, water can evaporate from plants through the process of transpiration. For example, trees absorb water out of the ground, but later lose that water out of their leaves. The process of transpiration keeps plants cool in the same way that perspiration keeps humans and animals cool. Water will evaporate from plants at different rates based on the temperature, wind, and humidity. The role of animals in the water cycle is not huge. All animals take in water, and then they pass the water on back to the environment by sweat, breathing, and waste products.
Plants and Animals in the Water Cycle
Freshwater Wetland Food Web
for this ecosystem
include almost all the land
in the eastern part
of North America since
that is where all of these
species are from.
"Earth Floor: Cycles." Earth Floor: Cycles. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2013. <http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/water.html>
"StudyJams." StudyJams. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2013. <http://studyjams.scholastic.com/studyjams/jams/science/ecosystems/water-cycle.htm>.
"Freshwater Marsh Life Animal Printouts - EnchantedLearning.com." Freshwater Marsh Life Animal Printouts - EnchantedLearning.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2013. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/biomes/marsh/freshwater.shtml>.
All images are from Google Images
American Herring Gull