**Invention and Innovation of the Calculator By: Ben Ridgway 1350 and Haley Reyna 1349**

Who was the original inventor and when was your product invented?

The original invention was created by the Ancient Chinese, in the form of an Abacus.

What is the purpose of your artifact?

The purpose of a calculator is to make the calculations and calculating equations easier.

Which of these areas of technology best classifies the artifact?

Information and Communication Bio-related and Agricultural,

Medical ,Environmental, Production, which includes manufacturing and construction, Transportation, Energy and Power, or Nanotechnology? The calculator best fits in to information and communication because it is a way to gather information in a quicker easier way.

How was it used when originally invented? How is it used today?

It was used in basically used the same way as today, to calculate equations faster. But now it is used to do more complex equations, ie. algebra and scientific calculators.

**Timeline of the Calculator**

Ancient Times- Chinese invented the abacus. Merchants who traded goods not only needed a way to count goods they bought and sold, but also to calculate the cost of those goods. Until numbers were invented, the abacus is one of many counting devices invented to help count large numbers.

17th Century -John Napier created Napiers bones- Invented for multiplication, based on the ancient Arabian Lattice.

Slide Rule- In 1620, William Gunter developed it for multiplication and division using dividers.

1622- William Oughtred invented the circular slide rule. And in 1633 described the first mechanical calculator.

1623. William Schickard invented the first mechanical calculator. It was called the "Calculating Clock" and was a version on Napier's Bones

1642- Blaise Pascal started to invent a mechanical calculator- The Pasculine. It was capable of addition, subtration, and multiplication. It ended up not being able to sell.

1673- Gottfried Leibniz developed the Stepped Reckoner using stepped wheels. It was able to perform four functions, but due to an error in the carrying system, none sold.

1820- Charles Xavier Thomas' Arithmometer.

1851- Victor Schilt showcased a key-driven adding machine at the Crystal Palace Exposition in London.

1853- The Scheutz Difference Enginewas made: the world's first printing calculator.

1872- Frank Baldwin made first pinwheel calculator in the USA.

1874- W.T. Odhner in Sweden independently develops the pin-wheel calculator.

1878- The first direct multiplication machine was built by Raymond Verea.

1884 - Dorr E. Felts Prototype- Felts invented the Comptometer, the first working key-driven adding and calculating machine. He joined with Robert Tarrant to form the Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Company which went on to make thousands of Comptometers

1891- William S. Burroughs began commercial production of his printing adding calculator.

1893- Millionaire calculator introduced. It allowed direct multiplication by any digit.

1902- The Dalton adding-listing machine.

1900-1975- Steady development of mechanical calculators in size reduction, electric motor drive, and adding features

In 1961, the Bell Punch Company made the first electronic calculator called the Anita Mk VII for European market and the Anita Mk 8 for other markets

1948- Curta, miniature hand held calculator introduced.

All through the 1950s and 60 as well as the 2000s the were developments in size (shirt pocket and credit card sized) as well as it becoming solar powered and leading to the first hand held computer.

How has this invention impacted society in a positive way?

It impacted society by enabling us to carry out equations out easier and then being able to get a reliable answer.

How has your invention impacted society in a negative way?

It has impacted society in a negative way because some people are too reliant on calculators and don't know how to do an equation out by hand.

How are science, technology, math, and engineering were all used in the creation of your technological product?

Science- Calculators can solve scientific equations. And solar powered calculators come from scientist figuring out that the sun can be a source of energy.

Technology- The calculator is a piece of technology because it has become mechanical and is mass produced.

Engineering- Some calculators are solar powered, which engineers created a way to harness the sun’s power. A mechanical engineer would work on the development of a calculator.

Math- Calculators are used to solve equations in math and keep getting updated to solve more complicated ones.

Find a quote about the invention or one of its innovations from the original inventor or one of the engineers who innovated the technological artifact.

Gottfried Leibniz- Nothing is more important than to see the sources of invention which are, in my opinion more interesting than the inventions themselves.

Quoted in J Koenderink, Solid Shape (Cambridge Mass. 1990).

Haley Reyna Sources and Pictures

http://www.learn360.com/ShowVideo.aspx?SearchText=history+of+a+calculator&lid=12520840&ID=924663

http://invention.yukozimo.com/who-invented-the-calculator/

http://quest.eb.com/#/search/calculator/1/139_2011836/Pascals-Calculator

http://quest.eb.com/#/search/calculator/1/115_2749790/Calculator

http://www.ee.ryerson.ca/~elf/abacus/history.html

http://www.vintagecalculators.com/html/calculator_time-line.html