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2015-16 U8 (8.1-8.3) The Late Cold War Era
Transcript of 2015-16 U8 (8.1-8.3) The Late Cold War Era
The Kennedy Years
JFK promised a "New Frontier"
regaining national prestige through sacrifice and hard work
The Space Race was an example
The Soviets had sent the first satellite into orbit
This caused Americans to fear they were falling behind their rivals
increased math and science ed
JFK wanted to beat the Soviets to the moon and restore some national pride! and in 1969 it worked...
JFK and the Soviet Union
1961 Soviets began constructing the Berlin Wall.
East Germans were escaping Communism
the wall was supposed to keep them from leaving
The Berlin Wall became a symbol of the cold war
a European Free Trade Zone an "Atlantic Community" formed with the United States as the dominant force.
JFK's military/foreign policy differed from Ike's
Ike wanted "Massive Retaliation" (nukes)
JFK wanted "Flexible Response" (variety of forces)
Rather than threaten nuclear annihilation in every case, JFK wanted to match the response to the offense.
it can more easily drag US into new wars...
JFK IN VIETNAM
JFK in Latin America
JFK offered aid to the Latin Neighbors, but was willing to use force if necessary
The Bay of Pigs invasion
Ike began a CIA plan to send Cuban exiles back to Cuba to overthrow Castro
Castro captured the 1200 exiles as they were getting off of the secret landing boats
The incident pushed Castro further towards a Soviet Alliance which led Khrushchev to try placing nuclear weapons on the island.
Khrushchev backed down, but was forced out of office.
Closest we ever came to nuclear war.
The Soviets then launched an enormous military program so they wouldn't be humiliated again.
The US forced to keep pace.
This accelerated the arms race
JFK did realize the threat of nuclear war though and worked with the Soviets to pass a test-ban treaty and install a direct Washington-Moscow hotline
Civil Rights under JFK
African Americans had been winning equal rights since the desegregation of the military in 1947
The movement was growing through the 1950s under Eisenhower
JFK was forced through citizen actions to make Civil Rights a priority in the 1960s
Freedom Riders - 1961
southern officials refused to do anything, so JFK was forced to send Federal Marshals to protect the riders.
JFK then sent 3,000 troops and 400 Fed Marshals to allow black air force Vet James Meredith to enroll in Ole Miss (University of Mississippi)
Birmingham, AL protests
JFK called for civil rights laws that would protect black citizens. This led to King Jr's March on Washington in support of the legislation
Even with JFK's support and the eloquence of MLK Jr. the violence continued.
Medgar Evers, a black activist was shot by a white gunman
9/1963 a bomb exploded in a Baptist church killing 4 black girls (just heard sermon "Love that Forgives"
JFK was assassinated in 11/1963
he had been unable to push through a Civil Rights Bill
The Johnson Years
"No memorial oration or eulogy could more eloquently honor Pres. Kennedy's memory than the earliest passage of the Civil Rights Bill for which he fought so long."
LBJ was able to push through Civil Rights laws using JFK's Memory
Civil Rights Act of 1964
banned racial discrimination in public areas
Fed power to end segregation in schools
Title VII outlawed racial and gender discrimination in hiring practices
LBJ proposed a "War on Poverty"
Officially called the "
" he called for economic and welfare measures
aid to education (Head Start)
medical care for elderly and poor (Medicare)
new voting rights
Conservatives claimed the money had been wasted but the poverty rate did decline.
Civil Rights under LBJ
LBJ passed the 1964 Civil Rights Act but their were still issues with voting rights
MS law required names of potential black voters be published in the local newspaper for 2 weeks
MLK led the Selma March for voting rights
The first try led to Bloody Sunday and the nation was shocked into supporting the Voting Rights Act
The VRA did not end discrimination overnight, but southerners did initially try to court black votes
will end in the 1970s with Nixon's Southern Strategy
It also marks a point of transition from non-violent moderate leaders like MLK to more militant efforts
Malcolm X of the Nation of Islam was a Black Separatist and militant leader
This more militant approach led Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture), and other SNCC leaders to preach a doctrine of "
The Black Panthers took militarism literally.
they did get better school nutrition in Oakland schools
The struggle for equality shifted from voting rights to economic opportunity, which was a much more difficult issue, especially in the North
the militancy and aggressiveness of the new "Black Power" movement turned off former supporters and frustrated many efforts
For example, the Orangeburg Massacre
In response to his unpopularity and the anger over Vietnam, LBJ declared he would not run for reelection in 1968
The Broken Democrats allowed an easy victory for the Republican "Law and Order" candidate Richard Nixon
The Nixon Years
Nixon lost to Wallace ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever") in the Deep South,
led to the
Nixon's Southern Strategy
Limiting Civil Rights efforts and playing up racial stereotypes to gain white southern votes
The 1960s saw a cultural upheaval as the baby boomers became disillusioned with racism, sexism, imperialism and oppression of American Culture
Church going declined and a new divide emerged between the more educated and secular sections and less educated but more religious sections.
Some turned to the "
". sex, drugs, and rock and roll. opposed many traditional American/ Patriotic views.
the idealism of "love not war" and peaceful protest eventually changed to violence.
mirrors the transition of the Civil Rights movement
Nixon inherited a bad economy
prices rising (inflation)
wages staying the same.
Started by LBJs refusal to choose guns or butter
Nixon also inherited the highly unpopular and divisive Vietnam War
The 1960s "liberal" Supreme Court promoted the protection of individual rights
the "conservative" backlash against assisting "criminals" and perceived anti-Christian rulings
Griswold v CT
- Court established the "right to privacy" in overturning a state law that banned contraceptives.
Gideon v Wainright
- all criminal defendants will have a lawyer even if they cannot afford one.
- right to remain silent and officers must inform you of your rights.
Engel v Vitale
- separation of Church and State means that public schools cannot require prayer or Bible readings
Roe v Wade
- based on Griswald "right to privacy" and women's economic issues, the Court legalized abortion. (during first 2 trimesters)
Starting with Nixon, conservatives made a big effort to place more conservative judges on the Supreme Court.
Back to Nixon
Nixon easily won reelection in 1972 based in part on his "Vietnamization" process and promise of a peace
After the election though fighting escalated and Nixon launched a merciless bombing campaign which led to a 12/1973 peace treaty.
The US withdrew all remaining troops and about 560 POWs
Nixon and Middle East
1973 Tensions over the Yom Kippur War
Worried that the Soviets were arming the attackers (to take over the Suez Canal zone) the US airlifted about $2 Billion in supplies to Israel
The US paid for supporting Israel when OPEC announced an embargo on oil to US and Europe
The embargo caused prices to spike and the economy to crash into a recession.
The Ford Years
When Nixon resigned, VP Gerald Ford took over
ummm... not much...
The Carter Years
Overall presidency was harmed by "Stagflation" or really bad economy
Some Middle Eastern Victories
Issues with Israel had kept most Arab countries (including those in OPEC) from recognizing it which hurt US prestige in the area (we were a big Israel ally)
Carter's human rights commitment led him to act as a peace facilitator between Israel and the Arabic world
What came out of it was the Camp David Accords
called for a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. Israel would withdraw from territories taken during the Yom Kippur War
Iranian Hostage Crisis
For years, the US enjoyed close diplomatic relations with the Shah of Iran
abundant oil supply and strategic location between the rich oil fields of Saudi Arabia and the USSR
In 1979 a revolution in Iran forced the Shah to flee
In his place, a government based on strict Muslim law and led by Ayatollah Khomeini took over the country
when President Carter let the Shah come to the US for an operation a mob overran the US Embassy in Tehran (Iran’s capital). They took all those inside as hostages.
In exchange for their release, the Iranians demanded that the US turn over the Shah
Carter refused and the hostages were held for 444 days.
There was a failed rescue attempt too.
In the end it was the election of Reagan that ended the Crisis.
(remember this is only 50 years after we first learned how to fly!)
Voting with their feet?
The Marshall Plan
By 1968 people were tired of Civil Rights and were more concerned with Vietnam
June 1964 w/ CBS' Mike Wallace
Wallace at his AL Gov. Inauguration
This essentially limits the impact of the Civil Rights movement and leads to further problems in the late 70s and 80s.
Nixon won re-election to a second term but war protests and social unrest left Nixon paranoid
Prior to the 1972 election, officials loyal to the president devised a number of schemes to protect him including breaking into the Watergate, site of the Democtratic headquarters
Police arrested five men and charged them with burglary
What followed became known as the Watergate Scandal
Nixon had not known about the 'plan’ but he did participate in the cover-up
Nixon's personal counsel testified that Nixon knew about the cover-up and another aid revealed that a secret taping system in the president’s oval office recorded conversations that proved the president’s involvement
Nixon refused to release the tapes from his office claiming he didn’t have to by law
The Supreme Court ruled however, that Nixon had to deliver the tapes
Finally he complied and the tapes seriously damaged the president
Four days later Nixon became the first president to resign his job
Had he not done so, he would have been impeached by the House and more than likely found guilty by the Senate