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Transcript of SMART MATERIALS
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
“A system of material which has built-in or intrinsic sensor(s), actuator(s) and control mechanism(s) whereby it is capable of sensing a stimulus, responding to it in a predetermined manner and extent, in a short/ appropriate time, and reverting to its original state as soon as the stimulus is removed.”
What are smart materials?
TYPES OF SMART MATERIALS
Smart material can exist in two phases at different temperatures: Austenite, which exists in high temperature, and Martensite, which exists in low temperature. In addition, there are two different forms of Martensite materials: twinned and detwinned. When the external temperature or stress condition changes, these two phases will transform to the other phase, depending on what change appears. Smart material exhibits many special properties during the transformations between these two phases, such as shape memory effect and superelasticity effect.
STRUCTURE OF SMART MATERIALS
***A Smart material is a material that can change its properties when there is a change in it’s environment. Examples of external stimuli that can change are: pH, temperature, stress, pressure, water content / moisture, light etc
1. Shape memory alloys (SMAs)
2. Piezoelectric Materials
4. Magneto-- And Electro Rheological
5. Chromic Materials
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are one of the most well known types of smart material and they have found extensive uses in the 70 years since their discovery.
The shape memory effect (SME) describes the process of a material changing shape or remembering a particular shape at a specific temperature. The shape change may exhibit itself as either an expansion or contraction.
The piezoelectric effect was discovered in 1880 by Jaques and Pierre Curie who conducted a number of experiments using quartz crystals. This probably makes piezoelectric materials the oldest type of smart material. These materials are mainly ceramics.
The piezoelectric effect and electrostriction are opposite phenomena and both relate a shape change with voltage.
Magnetostrictive materials are similar to piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials except the change in shape is related to a magnetic field rather than an electrical field.
Magnetostrictive materials convert magnetic to mechanical energy or vice versa.
There are two types of smart fluids which were both discovered in the 1940s. Electro-rheological (ER) materials change their properties with the application of an electrical field.
Magnetorheological materials (MR) are based on the properties of the fluid are altered by applying a magnetic field.
This group of materials refers to those which change their colour in response to a change in their environment, leading to the suffix chromic. A variety of chromic materials exist and they are described in terms of the stimuli which initiate a change, thus:
Thermochromic materials change with temperature;
Photochromic materials change with the light level;
Piezochromic materials change with applied pressure;
In the case of electrochromic, solvatechromic and carsolchromic materials the stimulus is either an electrical potential, a liquid or an electron beam respectively.
The change is reversible so as the material cools down it changes colour back to its original state.
3. Magnetostrictive Materials
examples of smart materials
Variable Geometry Chevron For Noise Reduction
Sustainable dance floor
Smart Kitchen Gadgets
Self-assembling Smart Materials and Components
Wearable Educational Technology