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Halloween

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by

Adriana Pérez

on 10 October 2015

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Transcript of Halloween

Compare and Contrast : Christian and Pagan
Celtic
Romans
By 43 A.D. conquered the Celtic lands before the birth of Christ
Assimilated and added to Celtic Samhain symbols and rituals
Festival of Pomona
Feralia and Lemuria
Christianity
Symbols
Bibliography
http://www.history.com/topics/halloween/history-of-halloween
http://www.psychicsdirectory.com/articles/halloween-christian-pagan-syncretism/
http://halloween.lisamorton.com/history.html
http://www.randomhistory.com/2008/09/01_halloween.html
http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-halloween-symbols-and-what-they-mean.php
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halloween
http://www.albany.edu/~dp1252/isp523/halloween.html
Syncretism
The blending of beliefs into one holiday
Celtic
Romans
Christians
Halloween
Include people from northern France,Ireland, England, Scotland, Wales, and Brittany
Influence
Costuming
Trick-Or-Treating
Lighting Bonfires
Telling Ghost Stories
Attending Community Parties
Samhain
31
God of Death Samhain
Ghosts and demons
Food left out
Masks
Parades lead out of town limits.
Festival of Pomona
Celebrated the Roman goddess of harvest, Pomona (Pomorum)
November 1st
Contributed the feast of nuts and fruits to the Samhain's autumn celebration.
Apples Symbol of love and fertility
Used for prognostications
"apple peeling"
"Bobbing"
Feralia and Lemuria
Both festivals of the dead
After Constantine declared Christianity legal in A.D. 313, it spread throughout the Roman Empire.
Assimilated Pagan traditions, instead of destroying them.
Gradually changed Shamhain and Pamona celebrations (Roman) into the Catholic rituals.
All Saints and All Soul's Day
Hallow Mass
All Soul's Day
All Hallow Even
All Saint's Day
Pope Gregory III replaced Samhain with All Saint's Day.
He moved All Saint's Day (All Hallow's Day in England) from May 1st to November 1st to coincide with the Pagan festivals.
The eve of All Saint's Day on Oct. 31.
Name later changed to Halloween
Commemorated all departed Christian souls not just saints
November 2nd
Created by a french monastic order called the Cluniacs.
All Saint's Day:
All Hallow Even:

All Souls Day:
Commemorated the passing of the dead
Romans were instructed to bring offerings to the tombs of their dead
Arrangements of wreaths
A sprinkling of grain and a bit of salt
Bread soaked in wine
Feralia
3 day event (9,11,13)
The original date set by Pope Boniface IV for the celebration of All Saints Day (609 AD)
The return of spirits of the dead
The Romans performed rites to exorcise the malevolent and fearful ghost of the dead from their homes.
Pater Familia
Lemuria
Souling:
The custom of baking and sharing soul cakes for all christened souls
Groups of people would go door-to-door during Halloween collecting soul cakes, in exchange for praying for the dead
England
Jack’o lanterns(pan-america)
Witches
Bats
Scarecrows
Skeletons
There was a
man

ca
lled ‘Stingy Jack”, and he angered both God and the Devil. When he died he didnt go the heaven or hell, so he stayed wandering on earth.
People
would carve pumpkins and place them outs
ide thei
r houses to keep him from knocking on their door. The Europeans used turnips for Halloween, but when they reached Americas, they switched to pumpkins because they were bigger, easier to carve, and more abundant.

Guising:
Children disguised in costume going from door to door for food or coins
Scotland and Ireland
France:
On the night of All Hallows' Eve, Christian families prayed beside the graves of their loved ones, setting down dishes full of milk for them.


Italy:
Some families left a large meal out for ghosts of their passed relatives.


Spain:
Special pastries are baked, known as "bones of the holy" (Huesos de Santo) and put them on the graves of the churchyard, a practice that continues to this day.
Jack O' Lanterns
Witches were feared because it is said that their powers were greater on Halloween night

Witches
Bats were extremely common during the Samhain festivals. People often made connections between them and vampires and witches, the reason being that they are both said to be able to transport into bats.

Bats
Scarecrow
Scarecrows were placed on the fields to protect crops from animals like crows. Scarecrows represent the harvest, and Halloween was originally a harvest festival
Skeletons
They represent the end of the physical part of life. Halloween is the night where the line between the world of the living and the world of the dead is blurred, so that’s why they are an important symbol.
Samnhain pt 2
The Celtic believed the dead prefered to mingle with the living so seats for the dead were set at their feasts to honor them.
Encouraged the congregation to remember the dead
Appease the spirits
Parade
Bonfires
Amalis Córdova,Laura Cardoza Ramírez, Adriana Pérez, Héctor Rivera
Halloween in America
Mass Irish and Scottish immigration during the 19th century .
In the 1800s there was a move in America to mold Halloween into a holiday more about community.
1920s and 1930s -became secular.
Vandalism
Today America spends more than $6 billion are spent.
Making it the second largest commercial holiday.
Ghost
Ghosts are important becasue halloween is the night where spirits walk among the living. This also has to do with the line between the living and the dead is being blurred.
All Soul's Day
Full transcript