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The Civil War
Transcript of The Civil War
Republican Party-State's Rights
War Time Economy
Legal v.s. Moral
While the Union claimed slavery was immoral, the Confederacy argued it was legal.
Compromise of 1820
Slavery in America
Origin of Slavery
Slavery was introduced through agriculture. The Natives discovered fertile land that could be used to grow crops, but as more people settled, land became harder to obtain. The Natives were eventually pushed out into the surrounding desert, but rather than dying, they offered to work for the landowners. Theoretically,this is how slavery was commenced. The landowners soon became unsatisfied and greedy and began driving the "volunteer" slaves to work harder under worse conditions. Through this process, slavery quickly became a cultural trait by the 1500s.
1619-First African slaves
were brought to the
North American colony of
aid in the production of
such as tobacco.
of the cotton gin
1852-Uncle Tom’s Cabin, written by
Harriet Beecher Stowe,
refuted the Southern
myth that blacks were
happy as slaves.
1857-The Dred Scott
Decision ruled that
property with no rights
1865-Eight months after
the end of the Civil War,
the United States adopted the 13th Amendment to
the Constitution, which outlawed the practice of slavery.
The Compromise of 1820, also known as the Missouri Compromise, caused a major conflict in the United States regarding the issue of slavery. Missouri wished to enter the Union with slaves, resulting in an unbalance between the free and slave states. The compromise made it so that Maine joined as a free state, while Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also established a line across the Southern border of Missouri which would only allow states below it to own slaves.
The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and opened new lands for settlement. But by allowing white male settlers in the territories to determine, through
, whether they should or shouldn't allow slavery within each territory. This act was designed by Democratic Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois. The initial purpose of the Kansas–Nebraska Act was to open up thousands of new farms and make a Midwestern Transcontinental Railroad feasible. It became a problem when popular sovereignty was written into the proposal, instead, the voters would decide whether slavery would be allowed or not. The result was that pro- and anti-slavery elements flooded into Kansas with the goal of voting slavery abolished or to be kept, leading to
The South lacked ammunition factories, much unlike the North. The South’s railroads were small and couldn’t carry supplies over long distances quickly. Also, Southern farmers grew more cash crops, tobacco and cotton, more often than they grew food for their soldiers. The North had enough food and supplies; they also had railways that could transport materials quickly throughout the nation. Because the North had such a material advantage, it came as a shock to observers today that the South had almost won the war. The North did a good job of cutting off the South’s only advantage: cotton. The North aimed to shut down the cotton trade. It took some time, but eventually, after the capture of New Orleans, the trade with England plummeted.
The north was much more well-off than the South. It had enough food and supplies to support its troops. It had many factories that could produce these goods. The North enjoyed 69% of the railroad capacity compared to only 31% in the South, and held all of the currency reserves of the federal government. Despite these advantages, the government still needed money. First, it issued a massive bond measure in which citizens and financial institutions were asked to buy bonds to fund the war. When this failed to yield enough money for the war, the Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon P. Chase, decided to print paper money. The “greenbacks”, as paper money became known, were initially backed by gold, and then later by the bonds that the government sold. The value of the money often varied according to the fortunes of the Northern army. Sometimes, the money’s value was one third less than the value shown on the bill. Still searching for ways to gather more money, the federal government introduced the first income tax in 1862, and the Bureau of Internal Revenue, later known as the IRS, was established. All of this worked relatively well, and the Union dealt with a rate of inflation that never topped 80% per year, while the South suffered a rate that reached 9,000% by the end of the war.
South: The South was in big trouble, now that its cotton exports were cut off. It had lost its banking system and contained no gold or silver reserves. Without gold or banks, the South printed lots of paper money. However, because of the Confederate Constitution, the central government couldn’t collect taxes. This caused the individual states to collect their citizen’s taxes. Therefore, the Confederacy was nearly broke. Because so many families were off to fight in the war, there were little people to tend to the farm, and consequently, less food to feed both the citizens and the soldiers. Food was scarce and the South suffered starvation. The final dissolution of the Southern army was when men realized that their families were starving and left the army to help. Guns and ammunition were also short in the South. Men had to bring their own arms and scavenge the battlefields to steal ammunition and weapons. Soldiers also lacked simple needs such as shoes, uniforms, tents, wagons, and horses. In the end, the South lost the war primarily because it ran out of men, money, and supplies.
(before the Civil War) a doctrine, held chiefly by the opponents of the abolitionists, that the people living in a territory should be free of federal interference in determining domestic policy, especially with respect to slavery
the term used to described the period of violence during the settling of the Kansas territory
Union v.s. Confederate
North v.s. South
40-1000 disguised women served in the army as men;14% became officers, and a few became confederate captains. They completed tasks and held important positions that would normally be done by men. Women were expected to be lady-like and sophisticated, not hardworking or tough. These expectations were known as the Victorian Ideal. Women had no voting rights, and had limited job opportunities. They could, however, own land. Some women joined the army to escape their undesirable life, while others wanted to follow their loved ones to battle,which were their husbands or brothers. Few others just wanted better pay and excitement or adventure.
Sara Edmonds from Canada disguised herself as a man and took the name of Franklin Thompson to join the Union army as a patriotic volunteer. In order to blend in, she cut her hair. Sara became the 1st female nurse. Afterward, she pretended to be a slave to spy on the South, and then became a mail carrier for the Union. However, she became ill with malaria and ran away until she recovered to prevent discovery. As a result, she was seen as a deserter, but eventually was allowed to rejoin the army.
Francis Louisa Clayton was another women who disguised herself as a man. She called herself Jack and followed her husband to the battlefield. She joined in the US Calvary and fought in the war when her husband died.
Sarah Rosetta Wakeman was yet another woman who joined the army. She joined to earn money as Lyon Wakeman, and was buried as Lyon. She wouldn't have been found out if not for her family that saved her letters.
Loreta Velazquez was known as Harry Buford, and fought for the South. In order to fully disguise herself, she romanced women while dressed up.
ID's were not required, so women could sneak in without getting caught. It was easy for them to physically disguise themselves, all that was required of them was to prove they could walk long distances while carrying a gun, and have two opposing front teeth to open gunpowder packets. A lot of soldiers who joined were young boys/teenagers who had high voices, didn't shave, and had no muscles, so it was easy for women to hide their feminism. To add on, the uniforms were loose and undressing was not mandatory.
Part of the disputes that led to the Civil War concerned
. Many Southerners felt that their state governments alone had the right to make important decisions, such as whether slavery should be legal. Supporters of
believed that their individual state governments had power over the federal government because the states had approved the Constitution to create the federal government in the first place. Most Southern states eventually seceded from the Union because they felt that secession was the only way to protect their rights, but Abraham Lincoln and many Northerners persisted that the Union could not be dissolved. The Union victory solidified the federal government’s power over the states and ended the debate over states’ rights.
-a form of government in which power is divided between the federal government and the states.
-the federal government only has powers given to them given by the constitution, rest is given to the states to control their local affairs.
1856-The Republican Party was created out of resistance to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. The
demanded more aggressive action against slavery, and more vengeance toward the Confederates.
1860- The Republican Party was made up of mostly anti-slavery Whigs and Know-Nothings. It became more focused on the exclusion of slavery . They endorsed a protective tariff, the Homestead Act, and internal improvements.
1864- In the midst of the Civil War, the Republican Party asked that the country continue to fight according to Lincoln's war measures. The party demanded an unconditional surrender and supported a constitutional amendment to end slavery.
- a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party from about 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877
period after the Civil War in which the states formerly part of the Confederacy were brought back into the United States
, Republicans at first welcomed President Andrew Johnson after Lincoln's death; the Radicals thought he was one of them and would take a hard line in punishing the South. However, he broke with them and formed a loose alliance with the moderate Republicans and Democrats. The showdown came in the Congressional elections of 1866. The Radicals were the victors and took full control of Reconstruction.
The Southern states believed that they had the right to own slaves. However, the North was too persistent over the immorality of it. As a result of Lincoln's election, South Carolina became the first state to secede, for it believed he would support abolition. Throughout the year of 1861, Texas, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Louisiana, and Florida seceded. Similarly, after the battle of Fort Sumter, Virginia, Kansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, followed the trend and seceded as well. In order to be more powerful and in control, the "rebelling" states merged together to form the Confederate States of America. They wrote a constitution overall based of the USA's but emphasized the sovereignty of the states and the right of the people to hold slaves.
-A formal peace treaty was never signed
-Edwin Booth (John Booth’s brother) saved Robert Todd Lincoln’s (Lincoln’s eldest son) life
a year before Lincoln’s assassination
-Lincoln created Secret Service that day. They were tasked with cutting down amount of counterfeit money circulating. They didn't protect the president
-Major Robert Anderson taught General P. T. Beauregard before war (Ft. Sumter)