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# Physics of Softball

3rd Quarter Major IPS project
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on 1 February 2013

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#### Transcript of Physics of Softball

Physics of Softball By: Danielle
Estrada 1. Research the following terms: motion, speed, force, net force, friction, gravity, weight, mass, air resistance, terminal velocity, projectile motion, inertia, momentum, and how does it relate to softball. What is Newton's first law? And how does it relate to softball? What is Newton's third law? And how does it relate to softball? Why is gravity a universal law? And how does it relate to softball?
How do you find the velocity of a falling object? And how does it relate to softball?
Works Cited Motion- the change in position and orientation of an object.

Speed- the ratio of the distance traveled by an object to the time taken. If the speed of an object is constant, it is said to be moving with uniform speed. The average speed of an object over time divided by the time interval. The instantaneous speed is the speed at any given moment .

Force- influences the shape and motion of an object. A single force will change its velocity and possibly its shape. Two equal and opposite forces may change it shape or size.

Net Force- the combination of all of the forces acting on an object.

Friction- a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact An object will remain in rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by a force
Newton's first law is evidenced constantly in softball, when you pick up a stationary ball and throw it, changing it's motion with force, or when a ball's direction initially dictated by the throw from the pitcher. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

One example of Newton's third law is when you catch a ball. As the ball enters your mitt and contacts the leather, it stops. in that instant, your hand exhibits a force equal to that which the ball imparts on the glove. The force you exhibit is equal and opposite to the motion of the ball. The result is that the ball stops. Gravity is an undefinable law, and in simpler terms everything that goes up must come down, in softball a thrown ball, hit pop fly, a thrown bat, and a body that jumps to catch a ball. Affatigato, Mario, et al. "Forces and Motion." Florida Holt Science & Technology. Orlando: Holt Rinehart Winston, 2006. 242-71.

Bonnet, Robert L. Home run! : science projects with baseball and softball.
Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers, 2010. Print.

Budhram, Adrian. "The Physics of Softball Velocity." LIVESTRONG .COM. N.p., 5 July 2011. Web. 6 Dec.
2012. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/485354-the-physics-of-softball-velocity/>.

De Pree, Christopher G., Ph. D. Physics Made Simple. New York City: Broadway Books, 1990. Print.

Gardner, Robert. Science Projects About the Physics of Sports. Springfield: Enslow Publisers, 2000.
Print.

Prezi. N.p., 28 Nov. 2008. Web. 11 Dec. 2012. <http://prezi.com/yqvsievhljp/softball/?utm_source=website&utm_medium=prezi_landing_related_solr&utm_campaign=prezi_landing_related_author>.

Stockley, Corinne, Chris Oxlade, and Jane Wertheim. Dictionary of Physics. Ed. Kirsteen Rogers.
Illus. Fiona Johnson. Tulsa: EDC Publishing, n.d. Print.

Thalmen, Edison, et al. "The Physics of Softball." Mixbook. N.p., 2009. Web. 6 Dec. 2012.
<http://www.mixbook.com/photo-books/education/physics-of-softball-2532596>.
Gravity- a force of attraction between objects due to their masses

Weight- a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object; its value can change with the location of the object in the universe.

Mass- a measure of the amount of matter in an object.

Air Resistance- the force that opposes the motion of objects through air.

Terminal Velocity- the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity.

Projectile Motion- the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launched, or otherwise projected near the surface of Earth.

Inertia- the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction until an outside force acts on the object.

Momentum- the mass of an object multiplied by its velocity is a vector quantity, so is momentum. What is Newton's second law? And how does it relate to softball? If the momentum of an object changes, if it accelerates, then there must be a resultant force acting on it. Normally, the mass of the object is constant, and the force is thus proportional to the acceleration of the object. The direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of the force. How do you calculate momentum? And how does it relate to softball? momentum = mass x velocity
momentum can make it easier to maintain a speed you have reached and to accelerate it further. Because the goal of a pitch is to reach the highest controllable pitching speed possible, momentum needs to be used by your raw muscle strength to propel the ball into an even faster motion. At the same time, building momentum can ease the stress on your muscle and joints. Therefore by calculating the momentum could alleviate straining muscles and joints. How do you calculate average speed? And how does it relate to softball? distance/time = average speed

Average speed can be used to find a player's average speed of multiple actions- throwing, running, sliding, pitching, etc. How do you find a net force? If two forces are in the same direction, you add the forces to calculate the net force. But if the forces are in opposite directions, you must subtract the forces to find the net force. If two forces have the same size and are in opposite directions, they will cancel. In such causes, the net force is O N. (0 newtons) A good example of Newton's second law is in the high arc of a slow softball pitch. When the ball leaves the pitcher's hand, the greatest force acting on it is the player pushing and throwing the ball into the air. As soon as the ball is airborne, it comes under constant forces that gradually overcome the initial force of the player's arm. Air resistance slows the ball down and gravity begins to pull the ball towards the Earth. The transfer of these forces onto the ball results in the arcing motion of a slow pitch ball. When the ball reaches the bat, the force of the bat becomes the largest force and dictates the ball's new motion, out into the field. What is kinetic friction? And how does it relate to softball? Friction between two moving surfaces.
Kinetic friction slows a softball player when she slides in to a base or home plate. ∆v= g x t You would use this equation to find the velocity of a softball after being hit or thrown without air resistance. What is the effect of air resistance on a falling objects? And how does it relate to softball?
The force of air resistance is pushing up on the object. This force is subtracted from the force of gravity to yield the net force, air resistance slows the falling object. It relates to softball by slowing the ball down when in motion. What is the projectile motion and acceleration due to gravity? And how does it relate to softball? Projectile motion is the curved path than an object follows when it is thrown or propelled near the surface of Earth. Projectile motion has two components - horizontal motion and vertical motion. The two components are independent, so they have no effect on each other. When the two motions are combined, they form a curved path.
The acceleration produced by the gravitational force of attraction. Its value is the same for any mass at a given place. It is about 9.8 m/s on Earth's surface, and decreases above the surface according to Newton's law of gravitation/2nd law.
Projectile motion relates to softball because after the ball leaves the pitcher's hand, the ball's horizontal velocity is constant. The ball's vertical velocity increases because gravity causes it to accelerate downward. The two motions combine to form a curved path. What does the units of weight and mass have to do with physics? And how does it relate to softball?
What is the difference between weight and mass? And how does it relate to softball? weight- ounces, pound, ton
mass- kilogram, gram, milligram
Mass is the amount of matter in an object.
Weight is the amount of gravity upon an object. Why do balanced forces have no change in motion? And how does it relate to softball? Because it is balanced and there is no mathematical difference in two balanced objects or forces which results in no change. When I am ready in softball position my knees and ankles have force upon them and help me stay balanced while on the field. How does the increasing speed with net force have to do with physics? And how does it relate to softball?
If the forces on an object are unbalanced, the motion of the object will change. A net force on a nonmoving object will cause the object to move in the direction of the net force. A net force can also increase the speed of an object in motion if the object is traveling in the same direction as a net force. How does decreasing speed with net force? And how does it relate to softball? A net force can also slow down an object that is already moving. (against the current)
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