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Transcript of WRAT4
"The goal of the sampling process was to obtain a sample of participants who matched as closely as possible the proportion of the March 2001 U.S. census in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and geographic region" Test Standardization
p.36 Multiple rules to remember (i.e., 5/7/10 Rule)
Does not measure the skills of those who are older adolescents in reading
Materials are not very appealing (lacks pictures and interactions) Weaknesses This is a brief, psychometrically sound measure of the basic skills essential for learning
This test is best used as a supplemental test
The WRAT4 can be used as a quick initial assessment of reading, spelling, and math computation or as a more comprehensive assessment of academic performance in reading and math. Implications for School Psychologists Raw Scores
Add up each of the 1's from the subtests
Mean=100; Standard Deviation=15
Confidence Intervals, Percentile Ranks, NCE, and Grade Equivalents can all be found Interpretation of Test Results - p.23 Raw Score: 0 for incorrect responses, 1 for correct responses
Points are added together to form total Raw Score
Unless otherwise stated
Reading Composite Score
Word Reading and Sentence Comprehension are combined to form the Composite Score
The front page includes:
Score Summary Table
Standard Score Profile
Standard Score Comparison Table Scoring Stored in a Safe place not readily accessible
Under NO circumstances should Participants be permitted to see the test items other than in the formal testing session.
Correct responses should not be shared Security - p.6 The User must have training and experience to equip them to administer the WRAT4
Through Graduate Level Coursework
through reading of the manual
practicing administration of the test to the point of comfort with the test
adhering to the standard administration procedures
maintaining objectivity in evalutation
Proper interpretation User Qualifications - p.5 "Those who use psychological tests should confine their testing and related assessment activities to their areas of competence, as demonstrated through education, supervised training, experience, and appropriate credentialing" (p. 131) User Qualifications - p.5 WRAT4 Professional Manual
Word Reading List/Spelling List Card
Sentence Comprehension Test Form
Sentence Comprehension Card
Sentence Comprehension Sample Card Test Materials - p.5 Measures an individual's ability to perform basic mathematics computations through counting, identifying numbers, solving simple oral problems, and calculating written mathematics problems.
Ages 7 or younger are first administered Part 1: Oral Math.
Ages 8 or older are first administered Part 2: Math Computation (if the participant doesn not had 5 correct responses, then administer Part 1: Oral Math).
Requires the student to work as many problems as possible in 15 minutes (problems are increasingly more difficult)
Examples (Green Response Form):
Ages 7 and younger: Administer Part 1 followed by Part 2
Allow the participant 15 minutes to complete Part 2
Ages 8 and older: Administer Part 2
After 15 minutes, check the participants responses. If the participant does not have at least 5 responses correct, then administer Part 1 Math Computation - p.18 Measures an individual's ability to encode sounds into written form through the use of a dictated spelling format containing both letters and words.
Contains two Sections:
Part 1: Letter Writing (name writing and 13 dictated letters)
Part 2: Spelling (consists of 42 words)
7 and Younger: Administer Part 1 first, then Part 2
Discontinue if there are 10 misspelled words
8 and Older: Administer Part 2 first
Discontinue after 10 misspelled consecutive words
If 5 words correctly spelled before Discontinue rule, don't administer Part 1
Examples: Reach, Correct, Minute, Believe Spelling - p. 14 Measures letter and word decoding through letter identification and word recognition
Starting point for this subtest depends on Part 2: Word Reading Raw Score
Six starting points (A, B, C, D, E & F)
Different samples are used depending on the starting point
Requires child to read a sentence to himself or herself and orally fill in the blank with one word (or two small words)
Examples (Blue Sentence Comp.Test Form):
If the participant does not correctly answer the first five items, test backwards from the starting item until s/he obtains five consecutive correct answers. Then return to the highest item administered and administer the next item.
Discontinue after seven incorrect items or when the participant completes item 50 Sentence Comprehension - p.9 After the first error , ask the Participant to repeat the word that was missed
If the Participant then says the word correctly, score the response as correct.
Letter Word Recognition:
Participant is asked to read aloud 15 letters
Participant is asked to read aloud 55 words Word Reading - p.8 Measures letter and word decoding through letter identification and word recognition
A Recognition Test
Age 7 and younger: Administer Part 1: Letter Reading first, followed by Part 2: Word Reading
Discontinue if Participant has responded incorrectly to 10 consecutive items
Age 8 and older: Administer Part 2: Word Reading first
Discontinue if Participant has answered 10 consecutive items incorrectly.
If 5 or more items were answered correctly, do NOT administer Part 1,
If 5 or more are not answered correctly, administer Part 1. Word Reading - p.7 The four subtests can be administered separately or in any combination of two or more
Can be administered in any order with one exception:
Word Reading must be administered before Sentence Comprehension (Sentence Comprehension administration and start point depends on Word Reading raw score). Organization & Order of the Test - p.2 General Testing Guidelines - 5/7/10 Rules - p.7 Physical Arrangements
Quiet room free from distractions and interruptions
Well ventilated and adequately lighted
Provide a positive, relaxed environment
Give the participant a brief explanation of the purpose of testing in a way the participant can clearly understand
Administer in a conversational manner
Give neutral responses to questions about whether or not a question is correct such as That's fine. If the participant cannot answer a difficult item, say something like, That was a hard one. Let's try another General Testing Guidelines - p.6 Internal Validity
Many of the items were a carryover from the WRAT3, however, new items were created to fill the void left by the WRAT3
Median for all subtests: .56-.79
There is moderate to high correlation between the WRAT4 and the WJ-III-ACH, WIAT-II, and the KTEA-II Validity - p.67 Internal Consistency Reliability
Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha range from .87 to .93
Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha range from .75 to .93
The Practice Effects were found to be small
Word Reading/Sentence Comprehension subtests
Have higher alternate-form reliability for younger participants (below ninth grade)
Older participants plateau Reliability - p.53 & 67 Administration Time
Depends on the participant's age, skill level, and response style.
Individual & Group Administration
Part 2 of the Spelling and Math Computation subtests can be administered in a small group format
Word Reading, Sentence Comprehension, and Part 1 of both the Spelling and Math Computation subtests must be administered individually Administration - p.2-3 Norm-referenced
The basic academic skills are measured in Word Reading, Sentence Comprehension, Spelling, and Math Computation subtests
The WRAT4 also yields a Reading Composite Score
Blue Form and Green Form
The two forms can be used interchangeably
The alternate forms allow for retesting within a short period of time without practice effects
The two forms can be administered together (i.e., Combined Form) to get a more qualitative assessment of academic skills. Combined Form also has an opportunity for performance observation Description of WRAT4 - p.2 The WRAT measures the basic academic skills necessary for effective learning, communication, and thinking
These basic academic skills are:
reading and spelling words
performing basic mathematical computations
Provides norms for individuals aged 5 to 94 and those in grades Kindergarten through 12 Test Overview - p.1 Quick, simple, psychometrically sound assessment of important fundamental academic skills
Valuable in initial evaluations of individuals referred for learning, behavioral, or vocational difficulties
The WRAT4, in conjunction with a broad array of comprehensive assessments, provides psychometric data, background history, and behavioral observations
Uses Why do we use the WRAT4? - p.3 The first WRAT was developed by Joseph P. Jastak, who created three tests to supplement David Wechsler's Wechsler-Bellvue Scales which measured cognitive performance.
Jastak felt there needed to be a measurement of the basic academic codes of word recognition, spelling, and mathematics computation
Jastak felt that these codes are "the carriers of thought but not as the thoughts themselves"
Jastak's tests along with the Wechsler scales provided a more complete view of individual abilities Historical Perspective - p.1 The Wide Range Achievement Test: Fourth Edition (WRAT4)
Original author: Dr. Joseph F. Jastak Author & Background - p.1 Authors & Historical Perspective
Why do we use the WRAT 4
Test Description & Administration
Reliability & Validity
Interpretation of Results
Implications for School Psychologists
Strengths and Weaknesses Overview SPSY 67955
Leah Abel & Marc Frederickson WRAT4 Marc Activity - Jeopardy? Psychometrically Sound
Scoring is Easy and laid out in a clear concise manner
Works great as a Screening tool
Can be correlated positively with other achievement testing
Does cover a wide range of achievement Strengths Test Materials - p.5 Wide Range Achievement Test, Fourth Edition 1930 1946 1993 2006 Collect initial data for psychological, educational, and vocational assessments Screen large groups of individuals to identify who need the academic help Reevaluate individuals diagnosed with learning and/or cognitive disorders Assess an individual's academic progress over time Children (8 and older) and Adults - 30 to 45 minutes Children (7 and younger) - 15 to 25 minutes 5 .54-.85 .49-.92 .14-.76 3,000 Ages 5 to 94 Grades Kindergarten to Grade 12 5 7 10 Word Reading, Spelling, and Math Computation 5 is the minimum number of correct items that must be answered correctly to waive administration of the 15 preliminary items in each of the subtests Sentence Comprehension A minimum of 5 words must be read correctly on Part 2: Word Reading to meet criterion for Sentence Comprehension administration. For Sentence Comprehension, 5 consecutive items must be correctly answered to establish a basal (for those starting at any item other than item 1). Sentence Comprehension Testing is discontinued if a participant answers 7 consecutive items incorrectly (ceiling). After 10 consecutive incorrect items, discontinue administration only Scoring
Spelling Total Raw Score = Letter Writing Raw Score + Spelling Raw Score
Give full credit for Letter Writing if participant is age 8 or older, and has spelled five or more words correctly on Part 2 Scoring
Participant is given one point for correct answers (answer shows an understanding of the sentence meaning), zero points for incorrect answers.
Sentence Comprehension Total Raw Score = Total Number of Items Scored as Correct (count any items before the starting point as correct)after 10 consecutive incorrect items, discontinue administration Scoring
Math Computation Raw Score = Oral Math Score + Math Computation Raw Score
Give full credit for Oral Math Score if participant if age 8 or older and has correctly answered five or more items correctly on Part 2 WRAT4 Professional Manual Testing Form (Blue or Green) Sentence Comprehension Test Form
Sentence Comprehension Card
Sentence Comprehension Sample Card Upper Extreme (130 and Above) Superior (120 - 129) Above Average (110 - 119) Average (90 - 109) Below Average (80 - 89) Low (70 - 79) Lower Extreme (69 and Below)