Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

First steps toward a usage-based theory

No description
by

andressa zabeu

on 28 November 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of First steps toward a usage-based theory

Introduction
Usage-based models of language focus on the specific communicative events in which people learn and use language. In these models, the psycholinguistic units with which individuals operate are determined not by theoretical fiat but by observation of
actual language use in actual communicative events.
Goals and methodology
Examine children's early use of language in an effort to identify what are the psycholinguistic units - in terms of both complexity and abstractness - with which the process of language acquisition begins.
Identify some of the developmental processes in which children's use of language becomes more adult-like over time.

In this paper, Tomasello employs a usage-based model of language to argue for five fundamental facts about child language acquisition:
(1) the primary psycholinguistic unit of child language acquisition is the
utterance
, which has as its foundation the expression and understanding of
communicative intentions
;
Before learning grammar, children can also initiate linguistics productions as:
First steps toward a usage-based theory
of language acquisition

by Michael Tomasello
Cognitive Linguistics (2000), 61-82
(1) the primary psycholinguistic unit of child language acquisition is the utterance, which has as its foundation the expression and understanding of communicative intentions;
(2) early in their language development children are attempting to reproduce not adult words but whole adult utterances;
(3) children's earliest utterances are almost totally concrete in the sense that they are instantiations of item-based schemas or constructions;
(4) abstractions result from children generalizing across the type variation they observe at particular ``slots'' in otherwise recurrent tokens of the same utterance;
(5) children create novel utterances for themselves via usage-based syntactic operations in which they begin with an utterance-level schema and then modify that schema for the exigencies of the particular communicative situation (usage event) at hand.
Utterance:
(Croft 2000) is a linguistic act in which one person expresses towards another, within a single intonation contour, a relatively coherent communicative intention in a communicative context.
communicative intentions can only be comprehended if they are experienced within the context of some already familiar ``form of life'' that serves as their functional grounding.
Communicative intention
may be defined as one person expressing an intention that another person share attention with her to some third entity (Tomasello 1998a).
(1) the primary psycholinguistic unit of child language acquisition is the utterance, which has as its foundation the expression and understanding of communicative intentions;
(2) early in their language development children are attempting to reproduce not adult words but whole adult utterances;
When children attempt to communicate with other people they attempt to produce (to reproduce) the entire utterance - even though they often succeed in
(re)producing only one linguistic element
out of the adult's whole utterance (Barret 1982).
Holophrase
That! meaning ``I want that''
i.e:
Ball? meaning ``Where's the ball?''
Holophrases
can also be frozen phrases that are learned as holophrases (Lieven et al. 1992):
i.e: "Lemme-see"
"Gimme - that"
"I - Wanna - do- it"
"My turn"
What the holophrastic child needs to do to become a syntactically competent language user?
The child must be able either to
``break down''
or to
``fill out''
her holophrases so that she can express her communicative intentions in the more linguistically articulated way of adult speakers.
This is the beginnings of grammar.
(Bloom 1973)
successive single-word utterances
word combinations
(Braine 1976; Brown 1973)
pivot look
which is characteristic of most children learning in most of the languages of the world
i.e: Where's the X? / I wanna X More X / It's a X
I'm X-ing it / Put X here / Mommy's X-ing it
(3) children's earliest utterances are almost totally concrete in the sense that they are instantiations of item-based schemas or constructions;
Tomasello (1992) hypothesized that children's early grammars could be characterized as an inventory of
verb-island constructions (utterance schemas revolving around verbs)
, which then defined the first syntactic categories as lexically based things such as:

``hitter'', ``thing hit'', and ``thing hit with'' (as opposed to subject/agent, object/patient, and instrument)
Lieven, Pine, and Baldwin (1997; see also Pine et al. 1998) found some very similar results in a sample of 12 English-speaking children, namely, they found that 92 percent of their children's earliest multi-word utterances emanated from one of their first
25 lexically-based patterns
, which were different for each child.
Item-based organization:
in a study of young Italian-speaking children Pizzuto and Caselli (1992, 1994) found that of the six possible person-number forms for each verb in the present tense, about half of all verbs were used in one form only, and an additional 40 percent were used with two or three forms. Of the ten percent of verbs that appeared in four or more forms, approximately half were highly frequent, highly irregular forms that could only have been learned by rote-not by application of an abstract rule.
Children do not master the whole verb paradigm for all their verbs at once, but rather they
only master some endings
with some verbs-and often different ones with different verbs.
syntactic overgeneralization errors
are almost never produced before about two-and-a-half to three years of age (see Pinker 1989).
Children's early productivity with syntactic constructions is highly limited with novel verbs:
Tomasello and Brooks (1998)
-
The sock is tamming

(to refer to a situation in which, for example, a bear was doing something that caused a sock to ``tam'' -similar to the
verb roll or spin)
-
What is the doggie doing?
(when the dog was causing some new character to tam)
The answer expectation was :
"He's tamming the car"
, but few children produced a transitive reply, since they have heard this verb only in a intransitive sentence frame.
However, four- to five-year-old children are quite good at using novel verbs in transitive utterances creatively, demonstrating that once they have indeed acquired more abstract linguistic skills children are perfectly competent in these tasks (Pinker et al. 1987;Maratsos et al. 1987; see Tomasello 2000 for a review).
(4)
abstractions
result from children generalizing across the type variation they observe at particular ``slots'' in otherwise recurrent tokens of the same utterance;
Research done with children from 3;5 to 8 years old
Four pairs of verbs
One member of each pair typically learned early by children and used often by adults
one member of each pair typically learned later by children and used less frequently by adults
The four pairs were: come/arrive, take/remove, hit/strike, disappear/vanish
Results:
"I arrived it"
than
"I comed it"
x = slots
Imitative learning, entrenchment, and abstraction
Understanding communicative intentions
Holophrases and early word combinations
Verb islands and other item-based constructions
Usage-based syntactic operations
Abstraction
"Pieces of language" (to express their communicative intentions)

Internal constituents of those utterances

Discernment of certain patters of language (cognitive development)
"Children mostly use language the way they have heard adults using it. This leads to an inventory of item-based schemas."
The imitative (cultural) learning and entrenchment is based on "slots". These slots are induced by a "type frequency", as exemplified in the following research:


(5) children create novel utterances for themselves via usage-based syntactic operations in which they begin with an utterance-level schema and then modify that schema for the exigencies of the particular communicative situation (usage event) at hand.
Established utterance

"Filled in" or "added on" material
"I got one"
"I got one
here
"
creation
The creativity is limited by children linguistics inventory. In other words, "the creation" of "new utterances" still being integrate of already mastered constructions.
The new usage-based models of cognitive and functional linguistics offer some exciting new perspectives for
developmentalists
because they are concerned with the actual psychological processes by means of which
individuals comprehend and produce utterances
. But cognitive and functional linguists have something to learn from developmental psycholinguists as well. If we are interested in people's
``stored linguistic experience'',
and
how they use that experience in acts of linguistic communication,
it would seem relevant to investigate systematically the processes by which linguistic experience is built up and used in human ontogeny.
Conclusion
"Language is not an instinct"
Michael Tomasello
Cognitive development - 1995
Emory University
Chomsky (Generative Grammar, 1995)

Theory that sees language acquisition as inner sequential associations. That doesn't take into account external interactions.
Language Acquisition
Tomasello (Cognitive/Functional)
- who is for the experience-dependent approach in order to study language acquisition- in this article critiques this theory by its "nativism", the logical arguments and the selective use of evidence,
Questions
What radically different assumption compared to generative grammar does Tomasello defend here?
What are item-based linguistic expressions and why would you expect these to be relevant?
Why are social interactions important for LA?
What is a holophrase?
Full transcript