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9.2 Health and Safety

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by

Kristen Jahns

on 24 July 2014

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Transcript of 9.2 Health and Safety

4) Mode of
TRANSMISSION
Organism transfers to new location
Indirect,direct, or through intermediary

5) Portal of
ENTRY


Mucus membranes, open wounds,
Tubes inserted in body

6)
SUSCEPTIBLE
host
age (old/young)
chronic disease
reduced immune system function
impaired nutritional status

CHAIN of INFECTION

Bacteria normally present in our body

COLON: digest food, make vitamins
E.coli (K), pseudomonas (B12)

SKIN: inhibit other microorganisms
Staph

VAGINA: prevent yeast infections
Lactobacillus  

MOUTH: cause cavities, gingivitis
Strep
Normal Flora: Bacteria

Objectives

Define the key terms.

List ways to
prevent transmission
of disease.

Define asepsis & list aseptic techniques.



Objectives

Safe Work Practices

Walk single-file on right-hand side of hall
Use stair handrails
Watch out for swinging doors
Don’t play around

FIGURE 9.13 Sterilizing surgical instruments in an autoclave to kill microorganisms
Source: BSIP SA/Alamy

Bacteriostatic
:
inhibit
bacterial growth
Bacteriocidal
:
destroy
bacteria

Examples:
Objects
: bleach, alcohol, ultrasonic cleaners

Skin
: iodine, chlorhexidine, H202, alcohol


Disinfection

Preventing Transmission

Disinfection
— cleaning of objects

Physical cleaning
Chemical agents
Ultrasonic cleaning

Asepsis

Generalized
(whole body)
headache, fatigue, fever, aching
increased pulse & respiration.

Localized
(specific area)
redness, swelling, warmth, pain

Spread of microorganisms

Direct
contact
: PERSON to person
Indirect
contact
: OBJECT to person

Air
borne
: sneezing, coughing

Oral
contamination
: water, food, dirty hands

Insects
& animals
: contact with person

Require:
warm, moist, dark environment
food source

Multiply best at
normal body temp


Bacteria & Fungi

mold, yeast, fungus

In body
mouth, GI tract, GU tract
kept in balance by normal bacteria
candida, dermophytes

Diseases
:
thrush, vaginitis, athlete’s foot


Fungi

plant-like or animal-like
parasite
that grows inside host cells

Diseases
:
Trichomonis:
sexually
transmitted
Malaria:
mosquitoes

Dysentery: contaminated
water

PROTOZOA
Contaminated food or water
:
E. coli, salmonella, dysentery, cholera

Insects
:
lice, ticks, fleas
typhus, Lyme disease

Airborne
:
Meningitis, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis,
Strep, Diptheria, Whooping cough

Direct contact
:
staph (MRSA)


Bacterial Transmission

Living, single-celled
organisms
Present everywhere
Nonpathogenic or pathogenic
Pathogenic cause disease

Healthy bacteria from one area

may be pathogenic
in another area


Bacteria

NONpathogenic organisms

Do NOT
produce disease

BODY
uses
digest carbohydrates
inhibit growth of pathogens

Other
uses

Yeast - bread, alcohol, wine, beer
Bacteria - cheese, sauerkraut, sausage
Medicines - probiotics

Pathogenic
: cause disease
Nonpathogenic
: harmless

Aerobic
: require oxygen to survive
Anaerobic
: don’t need oxygen

Host
: microorganism feeds on it
Normal flora:
healthy bacteria in us

Terminology

Describe
Universal Precautions
.

Describe role of
OSHA
.

Identify five general
safety
rules.
Objectives

Know the disaster plan of your agency or facility.
Move patients to safety if they are in danger.
Know where to find the fire extinguishers
and which exits to use.
Do not use an elevator.
Be calm and do not panic.

Key Points

Key Points

Universal Precautions reduce exposure to blood
and blood-contaminated fluids, thus reducing exposure to bloodborne diseases.

Health care facilities are obligated to provide
protection and confidentiality to both its patients and its employees.

Key Points

Microorganisms are
everywhere
.
Microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites.

Some are pathogenic & some not.
Microorganisms transmitted by direct & indirect contact.
Breaking the chain of infection prevents transmission



Key Points

Lifting Safely

Keep
back
straight
Keep feet
6-8”
apart
Use
leg

muscles
, bend at the
knees

Keep load
close
Do
not twist
body

Use your
body weight
to push/pull.

FIGURE 9.20 Ambulating a patient with a gait belt
Source: aceshot1/Shutterstock

Body Mechanics and Ergonomics

Use proper
body mechanics
Use
safe

lifting
practices
Use
specialized equipment
as needed


Ask and offer assistance

Accept suggestions

Disaster Preparedness


Follow fire safety
procedures
Know fire extinguishers
A
: wood, paper, plastic
B
: flammable liquids
C
: electrical


Know your employer's disaster plan
Stay calm. Don't use elevator.
Move patients to safety.

Don't use
malfunctioning
equipment.
Secure
medical supplies & equipment.
Report
unsafe conditions.
Safe Work Practices

Safe Work Practices

Check
labels
.
Wipe up
spills
.
Dispose of
sharps
properly.
Follow
instructions.
Report
injuries immediately.

Don't use
damaged
electrical cords.
Report
electrical shocks.


Hazard Communication Program

Know the
chemicals
& hazards present
Know
what to do
for biohazard spills

Know what
protective equipment
to wear
Know to
whom to report
an injury or illness


OSHA
:
work place
safety standards

OSHA standards require:
Ergonomic Program
Injury & Illness Prevention Program
Hazard Communication Program
Exposure Control Plan

General Safety
Injury and Illness Prevention

Ethical and Legal Issues

Employers should provide protective
equipment, safe practices, and disease management treatment.

Testing and treatment for HIV, HBV
should remain confidential.

Report exposure
Evaluate risk of infection
Discuss treatment


Bloodborne Diseases and Precautions

Bloodborne Disease Precautions

Wash or flush any contaminated area:
nose, mouth, skin, eyes

Needle Sticks
FIGURE 9.15 Protective clothing and gear includes gloves, masks, gowns, and goggles
Source: George Dodson/Pearson Education

Bloodborne Diseases

follow Universal Precautions
use protective equipment (gowns, gloves, masks
get vaccinated against Hepatits B

WASH HANDS !
Before
&
after
contact
After glove
removal

Sterilization

KILLS ALL
microorganisms and spores

Types
:
autoclaves
heat, steam, gas, chemicals
Used for
:
anything put
inside
body
anything put into
open

wound

Standard Precautions


Treat ALL patients

as if they are infected




Standard Precautions

Asepsis

STERILE
, NO germs

Aseptic technique
prevents
:
Transmission-
spread of infection
Nosocomial infection-
hospital acquired
Self-inoculation
: spreads to new area

FIGURE 9.12 Surgical hand washing, also known as a sterile scrub, to reduce microorganisms and the possibility of cross-infection among staff and patients
Source: Tyler Olson/Shutterstock

CHAIN OF INFECTION

1)
Infectious

AGENT
bacteria, virus, fungus, parasite

2)
RESERVOIR
where microorganism lives

3)
Portal of
EXIT
from reservoir
respiratory, intestinal, urinary tract
blood or body fluids

Viruses

NOT
alive
reproduce INSIDE a host cell

CONTACT transmission
:
HPV (warts), cold sores
chicken pox, shingles
HIV – AIDS
Hepatitis B & C (blood)

AIRBORN transmission
:
Influenza, rubella,
measles, mumps

9.2 HEALTH & SAFETY
Symptoms of Infection

Aseptic technique includes—
proper hand washing, hygiene
proper cleaning, sterilizing
following Standard Precautions

PREVENT germ transmission
!

How?
Prevent contact!
blood
body fluids
body excretions (except sweat)
wounds

Blood
Amniotic fluid
Pericardial fluid
Vaginal secretions
Cerebrospinal fluid
Tissue specimens
Pleural fluid
Semen

Describe fire and disaster considerations.

List rules of proper
body mechanics
.
Hand cleansing
alcohol based
does
NOT
kill everything!
does
NOT
sterilize hands!
Employers inform employees of workplace
risks and take steps to minimize those risks.

Employees must follow rules and practice safe
behavior to minimize risks of injury to themselves, coworkers, and patients.
Nosocomial
infections are acquired in the hospital.
Asepsis
is the method used to destroy the environment
that allows pathogens to live, breed, and spread.

Ways to control spread include hand washing, disinfection,
sterilization, and following
UNIVERSAL Precautions
.
OSHA is very strict about enforcement of regulations
that keep the work environment safe.

Fire requires oxygen, heat, and fuel.

Prevent fires by checking for frayed electrical cords,
malfunctioning equipment, careful handling of flammable liquids, & following proper oxygen procedures.
Full transcript