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Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
Transcript of Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
Characteristics of DSDM in Practice
• Not all requirements can be identified or specified in advance
• DSDM starts at a high-level view of requirements, which refine and change during the process
• Easy and obvious requirements, plus those providing the most impact are used as the starting point for development
• The information system to be developed is divided into components, or timeboxes, which are developed separately
• The aim is to deliver quick and often
• Also known as the 80/20 rule
• 80% of an information system’s functionality can be delivered with around 20% of the total effort
• Conversely, the most complex part (20%), takes the majority of the effort (80%)
• The idea in DSDM is to use as much of the 80% to deliver as possible in the timebox – with the rest (if necessary) in subsequent timeboxes
• Must Haves
• Should Haves
• Could Haves
• Won’t Haves
Interesting article online
• I will probably have some quiz/test questions from this article, so be sure to review it when you are studying
Used to help users with their “wish lists,” by prioritizing and limiting what gets done in a timebox
A methodology within itself
• Joint Application Development
• Facilitated meetings
• Allows stakeholders active input:
• Manages expectations and gains commitment from stakeholders
What gets included in the timebox
Length of timebox
• Rough approximation of the application or its pieces
• Used to test some designs and other features
• Also used to get user reaction at an early stage
• Helps speed up process of eliciting requirements
• Can evolve into the system (or application) itself
• Individuals and interaction over processes and tools
• Working software over comprehensive documentation
• Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
• Responding to change over following a plan
DSDM Development Process
Has the normal feasibility elements
Mostly concerned whether DSDM is the correct approach for the project
Lasts only a few weeks (as opposed to SSADM feasibility studies)
Not detailed, but focuses on risks and how to manage them
System is built ready for delivery
“must haves” and some “should haves” are delivered
Testing is not a major feature at this stage since testing is (or should have been) an ongoing process
System Design and Build Iteration
Functional Model Iteration
High-level functions and information requirements are refined
Standard analysis models produced
Software developed from prototypes
Quick study done at relatively high level
Gaining of understanding of business process, their rationales, and information needs
JAD workshops are recommended
Overall systems architecture defined
Work plans outlined
Cut-over from existing system to new system
Training, development, and completion of user manuals and documentation
User documentation produced by the users rather than the specialist developers
Project review document is produced which assesses whether all requirements have been met or whether further iterations are needed
eXtreme Programming (XP) is one approach
Teamwork and open, honest communication are stressed
Customers define requirements thru user stories
Architectural spike (simple program) used to focus on a particular problem, ignoring the other concerns
Paired programming – two programmers per workstation
One programmer codes
Other programmer thinks strategically
Software engineering – using sound engineering principles, good management practice, applicable tools, and methods for software development.
Dietmar Pfahl and colleagues’ study suggests that “finding and fixing a software problem after delivery is 100 times more expensive than finding and fixing it during the requirements and early design phases.”
Spiral model has four main activities in each cycle:
The model’s number of cycles varies, depending on the nature of the project and the difficulties encountered
Software Development Lifecycle
What often does happen
What is expected
Software Development Lifecycle
Which is better - SSADM or DSDM?
Rapid application development
Perhaps a mix of the two
Some Guidance for the Project Manager
What tasks are to be carried out at each stage?
What outputs are to be produced?
When, and under what circumstances, are they to be carried out?
What constraints are to be applied?
Which people should be involved?
How should the project be managed and controlled?
What support tools may be utilized?
What will be the training needs for Information Systems professionals?
What will be the training needs of users and other stakeholders?
Regardless of which methodology...