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Copy of BF Skinner & Operant Conditioning
Transcript of Copy of BF Skinner & Operant Conditioning
a Child in a Classroom B.F Skinner and Operant Conditioning Burrhus Frederic Skinner March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990 Biography Born in Susquehanna, PA
1926 - BA in English from Hamilton College
1930 - MA Harvard
1931 - Ph.D. Harvard
1936 - marries Yvonne Blue - two daughters, Julie and Deborah
1945 - Psychology Department Chair - University of Indiana
1948 - Psychology Department - Harvard (until his death) Awards 1966 - Edward Lee Thorndike Award, American Psychological Association
1968 - National Medal of Science from President Lyndon B. Johnson
1971 - Gold Medal of the American Psychological Foundation
1972 - Human of the Year Award
1990 - Citation for Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology What is
Operant Conditioning? A method of learning that
occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.
An association is made between
a behavior and a consequence
for that behavior Two Key
Operant Conditioning Reinforcement
Punishment Reinforcement Positive
Negative Punishment Positive
Negative Positive reinforcers are favorable events that are presented after the behavior. A response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something pleasant, such as praise or a direct reward.
Classroom Example: stickers, bonus time on favorite activity Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable outcome after the display of a behavior. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant
Classroom Example: reduce homework Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as
punishment by presentation, involves the presentation
of an unfavorable event in order to weaken the
response it follows
Classroom Example: detention, scolding, call to parents Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when an favorable event is removed after a behavior occurs
Classroom example: take away recess, computer time The Skinner Box Used to measure responses of organisms (most often, rats and pigeons) and their orderly interactions with positive or negative stimuli
The rat would pull the lever and receive food. Subsequently, the rat made frequent pulls on the lever (positive)
Pigeons peck a plastic disc in order to open a drawer filled with grains (positive)
Rat inside the box and an electric current is sent into the box. The rat moves around the box, it would knock the lever by accident and the electric current would stop. The rats soon learned to go straight to the lever to turn off the electric current (Escape Learning)
Skinner taught the rats to press the lever when a light came on in the box which would stop the electric current before it even started (Avoidance Learning) Sources http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm
[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EWyZHSZf3TM] Gary Beck