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Sustainability.

Enviromentally sustainable work practices. UEENEEK142A
by

john raven

on 11 April 2013

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Transcript of Sustainability.

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Our World our Future Sustainability Powerpoint Climate Change Non renewable energy What do you think about Nuclear energy, is it a renewable energy source and our best future energy source. Renewable Energy What does renewable energy mean?
Why should we use it?
What are some examples of renewable energy? Storage So there seems to be many ways to make renewable energy but the wind does not always blow and the sun is only out during the day. So how do we store this energy? Enterprise Lets look at new cars, third world lighting and is Russia ahead of the pack for sustainable technology. Do you believe that man is contributing to climate change. Will coal, gas and petrol run out and does burning these affect our planet. End The Trombe wall incorporates thermal mass into a masonry wall built behind a wall of windows. Providing a large storage capacity for heat, the masonry wall slowly absorbs the heat of the sun during the day. At night when heating is needed, vents are opened at the top and bottom of the wall to circulate air around the wall. Trombe wall Solar-passive design Building design Although some energy-saving ideas may involve a substantial initial expense, in the long run the reduction in energy consumption saves money through reduced fuel bills. We can also help to reduce the consumption of energy used in manufacturing, by reducing the amount of waste we produce, re-using products, and recycling them where possible. The average air conditioner uses more energy than 12 ceiling fans.

Installing solar water heating, energy efficient appliances, and energy efficient lighting with controls could save up to $1400 in yearly running costs. Did you know that … In the typical Qld home …

Heating/air conditioning contributes 27% of power consumption

Hot water systems also contribute 27% of power consumption Did you know that … Thermostats and timers reduce energy consumption by automatically switching off devices that may otherwise have been left on. Thermostats and timers Unlike incandescent bulbs that radiate light in 360 degrees, LED light is focused and directional.
LEDs have a long-lifespan of around 35,000-50,000 hours, compared to about 10,000 hours for fluorescents and 1,000 hours for incandescent.
Because of their low power requirement, LEDs are ideally suited for solar power. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Up to 90% of the energy an incandescent (standard) light bulb uses is wasted, mainly on heat.
Lighting represents around 12% of Australia’s domestic greenhouse gas emissions.
Globally, electric lighting generates emissions equal to 70% of those from all passenger vehicles. Did you know? In an attempt to cut greenhouse gas emissions, standard incandescent light bulbs are set to be phased out from 2009 to 2010.
Compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) last between 6000 and 15,000 hours, compared with 1000 to 2500 hours for an incandescent bulb. Lighting ENERGY STAR® is an international standard for energy efficient electrical equipment. Star rated equipment Trade Related Technologies & Methods Don’t waste food. Buy only what you will eat. The production of food uses water and energy and the food we don’t eat creates waste. In Australia $5.3 billion of food was thrown away in 2004 .
Take public transport to get to work In Sydney, commuting to work accounted for a quarter of travel in 2005.
Walk or cycle rather than driving While cycling and the use of motor scooters and motorbikes is on the rise, the car remains the most popular way to get to work. Other things you can do to reduce emissions Switching to accredited green power schemes will allow you to significantly reduce your greenhouse gas emissions by using renewable energy to produce the electricity you use.

If you switch to 100% accredited GreenPower you could cut your carbon footprint by about 70%. Purchasing GreenPower is good for the environment and helps support Australia’s fledgling renewable energy sector. GreenPower is a government accreditation program for renewable energy.
When you choose to buy a GreenPower product, the few extra cents added to your electricity account each day is invested back into the renewable energy sector. Switch to GreenPower Switch off unused lights. Did you know that an average Australian home spends about $100 on lighting per year which emits about three quarters of a tonne of greenhouse gases?
Switch off appliances on standby. Appliances on standby can easily use up to 10% of your electricity when they are doing little or even nothing. At home Domestic, commercial and industrial strategies g) Techniques for reducing carbon & GHGs Renewable energy generation projects create vibrant new industries in local communities, frequently in rural areas where the economy has not been thriving and therefore make contributions to society as a whole

Developing Australia's abundant sustainable low-cost energy resources is a key to our future prosperity. Australia is the world's fourth largest producer, and largest exporter, of coal. One day coal will run out, it is not renewable. f) Economic benefits of sustainable initiatives
The aim of this Act is to protect Queensland's environment while allowing for development that improves the quality of life while maintaining the ecological processes on which it depends. Environmental Protection Act
1994
“The role of the Department of Environment and Resource Management is to conserve and manage our natural environment for the benefit of all Queenslanders.” Qld Dept of Environment & Resource Management "This is the first official act of the new Australian Government, demonstrating my Government's commitment to tackling climate change“
PM Kevin Rudd Australia joined the Kyoto Protocol Dec. 2007 Under the Protocol, 37 industrialized countries commit themselves to a reduction of four GHGS (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) produced by them.

Initially Australia was not a signatory IPCC reports are widely cited in almost any debate related to climate change. National and international responses to climate change generally regard the UN climate panel as authoritative. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body tasked to evaluate the risk of climate change caused by human activity. The panel was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), two organizations of the United Nations. IPCC
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Kyoto Protocol
The Qld Dept of Environment & Resource Management e) The role of regulators & similar bodies Climate change and the depletion of natural resources tells us that traditional work practices are not sustainable.
To initiate sustainability strategies regarding the work we do is no longer an option; it is an imperative. Sustainability Queensland is particularly vulnerable to climate change because:

Many of our key sectors are climate-dependent, such as agriculture and tourism
Most of our population lives on the coast and are at risk from more extreme weather and rising sea levels
Our ecologically rich areas, such as the Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics, are vulnerable to a significant loss of biodiversity. Climate Change
The Twin Imperatives: Climate Change and Sustainability d) International & national GH imperatives Such impacts will be related to changes in rainfall, sea level, and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, resulting from global warming. Such a rapid change in climate will probably be too great to allow many ecosystems to suitably adapt, and the rate of species extinction will most likely increase.
In addition to impacts on wildlife and species biodiversity, human agriculture, forestry, dry lands, water resources and health will all be affected. To put this temperature change into context, the increase in global average surface temperature which brought the Earth out of the last major ice age 14,000 years ago was of the order of 4 to 5°C. This climate change took thousands of years. Man-made global warming, in contrast, may occur at rate that is unprecedented on Earth. Most HCFCs are broken down in the lowest part of the atmosphere, and pose a much smaller risk to the ozone layer than CFCs. Unfortunately HCFCs are also very potent GHGs, despite their very low atmospheric concentrations. HCFCs are a group of man-made compounds containing hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon. They are not found anywhere in nature. Like CFCs, HCFCs are used for refrigeration, aerosol propellants, foam manufacture and air conditioning. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons
HCFC production began to take off after countries agreed to phase out the use of CFCs in the 1980s, which were found to be destroying the ozone layer. At 181 million tonnes in 2007, Queensland has the highest carbon footprint in Australia in absolute and per capita terms. Queensland creates 30 per cent of Australia's emissions despite having only 20 per cent of the national population. In 2006 the primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.8%, coal 26.6%, natural gas 22.9%, amounting to an 86% share for fossil fuels in primary energy production in the world. Fossil fuels are fuels formed by the natural process of the decomposition of buried dead organisms. It is a process that takes millions of years.


These fuels contain high percentages of carbon and hydrocarbons. Fossil fuels Burning of fossil fuels
Industrial emissions
Deforestation
Livestock
Waste disposal
Use of fertilizers
Man-made GHGs The types of human activity causing an increase in GHG emissions include: During the last 200 years mankind has been releasing extra quantities of greenhouse gas which is trapping more heat in the atmosphere. Over the same time period the climate of the Earth has warmed, and many scientists now accept that there is a direct link between the man-made enhancement of the greenhouse effect and global warming. Naturally occurring GHGs include: carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane and nitrous oxide.

GHG emission is also a by product of human activity. Scientists are concerned that current levels of emission through human activity is causing global warming. The GE is actually a natural and necessary process.
The sun’s rays heat the earth’s surface. The heat rises and encounters a greenhouse gas (GHG), some heat is dissipated into space and some returns to the earth.
The GE maintains the earth’s temperature and climate, without it the world would be a much colder place. The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is the heating of the surface of a planet or moon due to the presence of an atmosphere containing gases that absorb and emit infrared radiation. Thus, greenhouse gases trap heat within the surface-troposphere system. The greenhouse effect The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the observed temperature increase or global warming since the middle of the 20th century was caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity. This panel is a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the United Nations to evaluate the risk of climate change. c) The Greenhouse Effect
and global warming Degradation of the environment and loss of the vast variety of life forms

Depletion of sources of energy

Threatening of the welfare of future generations A work practice is said to be sustainable if it can be used by both current and future generations without causing harm to the environment, life forms, and ecological systems. a) Notion of sustainable work practice The ESD challenges us to question many things including the way we carry out our work. Work practices
Everyone is responsible for acting in a way which will make our future sustainable. This includes local, State and federal governments, business, industry, community groups and individuals. Who is responsible for ESD?
to enhance individual and community well-being and welfare by following a path of economic development that safeguards the welfare of future generations
to provide for equity within and between generations
to protect biological diversity and maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems What are the objectives of ecologically sustainable development (ESD)? Australia's governments have worked together to develop the National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development and the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment.
The Queensland Government is acting to ensure that ESD becomes a part of all its programs and is adopted by the general community. Sustainability “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”


Brundtland Commission of the United Nations Dictionaries provide more than ten meanings for sustain, the main ones being to “maintain", "support", or "endure”. The R-value being discussed is the unit thermal resistance.
Aerogel is an extremely efficient man-made insulator and has a very high R-value ‘R’ Insulation Rating for Windows Passive energy systems use available natural conditions such as sunlight and wind to warm or cool our living environment. The aspect of a building is critical to passive energy systems
In the southern hemisphere the north face of the building should allow maximum sunlight in winter; whereas the western face should be screened from the hot afternoon sun in summer Passive Energy Systems Motion sensing devices can significantly reduce power consumption Motion sensing devices Incandescent $875.52
CFLs $209.61
LEDs $137.12

Cost includes initial purchase price of lighting device Lighting cost comparison based on 60,000 hrs of operation Energy efficient devices If all the compatible computers in Australia were ENERGY STAR enabled it would save companies and households more than $200 million in energy costs per year!
As most electricity in Australia is made by carbon dioxide-producing coal-fired power stations, this would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by over 2 million tonnes a year. This is equivalent to taking around 500,000 cars off the road! Did you know that … Reduce Air travel Air travel is a large and rapidly growing contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. If you must fly, consider offsetting your emissions.
Drive efficiently If you must drive, consider carpooling which will reduce the number of cars on the road. Also, make sure your car is good working order, well tuned, and tyres are properly inflated. Other things you can do to reduce emissions Keep windows shaded - Use awnings or blinds.
Wash your clothes in cold water -Electric hot water systems can produce up to 4 tonnes of greenhouse gases and account for half of your electricity bill.
Draught-proof your home. - By sealing gaps and cracks you can save up to 15% of your heating and cooling energy bill
Set your thermostat 1 degree warmer in summer and 1 degree cooler in winter. - Heating and air conditioning are big contributors to energy use. You can save up to 10% on your bill by simply making minor adjustments to your thermostat. Reduce your heating and cooling energy use. Domestic

The Toward Q2 plan. As part of this plan (toward a greener Queensland), the Queensland government is committed to supporting households to reduce their electricity and car use by one-third by 2020.

The Q2 Program supports the phase out of existing electric hot water systems from 2010, and the national phase out from 2012. making use of secure, local and replenishable resources
reducing dependence on non-renewable energy
helping to keep the air clean
helping to reduce the production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
helping to create jobs in renewable energy industries.

Geothermal, solar, wind, hydro, biomass and wave are all examples of renewable energies. Using renewable energy can provide many benefits, including: The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at combating global warming.

The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on 16 February 2005. KYOTO If the climate changes in response to an enhanced greenhouse gas effect as current computer models have projected, global average surface temperature could be anywhere from 1.4 to 5.8°C (with a best estimate of 3°C) higher by the end of the 21st century. Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect Chlorofluorocarbons
CFCs are wholly man-made and do not exist naturally. Introduced in the 1930s they have been widely used in aerosols, foam manufacture, air conditioning and refrigeration. They are much stronger GHGs than carbon dioxide, and they also destroy stratospheric ozone. Man made GHGs The natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth 33°C warmer than it would be without an atmosphere, at an average of +15°C. In contrast, the moon, which has no atmosphere, has an average surface temperature of -18°C. b) Effects of neglecting sustainable work practice “Sustainable development (work practice) is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”

(United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development) EKAS 2.20.22 Environmentally Sustainable Work Practice Solar-passive design Building design The average air conditioner uses more energy than 12 ceiling fans.

Installing solar water heating, energy efficient appliances, and energy efficient lighting with controls could save up to $1400 in yearly running costs. Did you know that … In the typical Qld home …

Heating/air conditioning contributes 27% of power consumption

Hot water systems also contribute 27% of power consumption Did you know that … Thermostats and timers reduce energy consumption by automatically switching off devices that may otherwise have been left on. Thermostats and timers Incandescent $875.52
CFLs $209.61
LEDs $137.12

Cost includes initial purchase price of lighting device Lighting cost comparison based on 60,000 hrs of operation Unlike incandescent bulbs that radiate light in 360 degrees, LED light is focused and directional.
LEDs have a long-lifespan of around 35,000-50,000 hours, compared to about 10,000 hours for fluorescents and 1,000 hours for incandescent.
Because of their low power requirement, LEDs are ideally suited for solar power. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Up to 90% of the energy an incandescent (standard) light bulb uses is wasted, mainly on heat.
Lighting represents around 12% of Australia’s domestic greenhouse gas emissions.
Globally, electric lighting generates emissions equal to 70% of those from all passenger vehicles. Did you know? Energy efficient devices If all the compatible computers in Australia were ENERGY STAR enabled it would save companies and households more than $200 million in energy costs per year!
As most electricity in Australia is made by carbon dioxide-producing coal-fired power stations, this would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by over 2 million tonnes a year. This is equivalent to taking around 500,000 cars off the road! Did you know that … Trade Related Technologies & Methods Don’t waste food. Buy only what you will eat. The production of food uses water and energy and the food we don’t eat creates waste. In Australia $5.3 billion of food was thrown away in 2004 .
Take public transport to get to work In Sydney, commuting to work accounted for a quarter of travel in 2005.
Walk or cycle rather than driving While cycling and the use of motor scooters and motorbikes is on the rise, the car remains the most popular way to get to work. Other things you can do to reduce emissions Switching to accredited green power schemes will allow you to significantly reduce your greenhouse gas emissions by using renewable energy to produce the electricity you use.

If you switch to 100% accredited GreenPower you could cut your carbon footprint by about 70%. Purchasing GreenPower is good for the environment and helps support Australia’s fledgling renewable energy sector. GreenPower is a government accreditation program for renewable energy.
When you choose to buy a GreenPower product, the few extra cents added to your electricity account each day is invested back into the renewable energy sector. Switch to GreenPower Keep windows shaded - Use awnings or blinds.
Wash your clothes in cold water -Electric hot water systems can produce up to 4 tonnes of greenhouse gases and account for half of your electricity bill.
Draught-proof your home. - By sealing gaps and cracks you can save up to 15% of your heating and cooling energy bill
Set your thermostat 1 degree warmer in summer and 1 degree cooler in winter. - Heating and air conditioning are big contributors to energy use. You can save up to 10% on your bill by simply making minor adjustments to your thermostat. Reduce your heating and cooling energy use. Switch off unused lights. Did you know that an average Australian home spends about $100 on lighting per year which emits about three quarters of a tonne of greenhouse gases?
Switch off appliances on standby. Appliances on standby can easily use up to 10% of your electricity when they are doing little or even nothing. At home Domestic

The Toward Q2 plan. As part of this plan (toward a greener Queensland), the Queensland government is committed to supporting households to reduce their electricity and car use by one-third by 2020.

The Q2 Program supports the phase out of existing electric hot water systems from 2010, and the national phase out from 2012. Domestic, commercial and industrial strategies g) Techniques for reducing carbon & GHGs Renewable energy generation projects create vibrant new industries in local communities, frequently in rural areas where the economy has not been thriving and therefore make contributions to society as a whole

Developing Australia's abundant sustainable low-cost energy resources is a key to our future prosperity. Australia is the world's fourth largest producer, and largest exporter, of coal. One day coal will run out, it is not renewable. f) Economic benefits of sustainable initiatives "This is the first official act of the new Australian Government, demonstrating my Government's commitment to tackling climate change“
PM Kevin Rudd Australia joined the Kyoto Protocol Dec. 2007 The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at combating global warming.

The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on 16 February 2005. KYOTO IPCC reports are widely cited in almost any debate related to climate change. National and international responses to climate change generally regard the UN climate panel as authoritative. Climate change and the depletion of natural resources tells us that traditional work practices are not sustainable.
To initiate sustainability strategies regarding the work we do is no longer an option; it is an imperative. Sustainability
The Twin Imperatives: Climate Change and Sustainability d) International & national GH imperatives Such impacts will be related to changes in rainfall, sea level, and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, resulting from global warming. Such a rapid change in climate will probably be too great to allow many ecosystems to suitably adapt, and the rate of species extinction will most likely increase.
In addition to impacts on wildlife and species biodiversity, human agriculture, forestry, dry lands, water resources and health will all be affected. To put this temperature change into context, the increase in global average surface temperature which brought the Earth out of the last major ice age 14,000 years ago was of the order of 4 to 5°C. This climate change took thousands of years. Man-made global warming, in contrast, may occur at rate that is unprecedented on Earth. HCFCs are a group of man-made compounds containing hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon. They are not found anywhere in nature. Like CFCs, HCFCs are used for refrigeration, aerosol propellants, foam manufacture and air conditioning. At 181 million tonnes in 2007, Queensland has the highest carbon footprint in Australia in absolute and per capita terms. Queensland creates 30 per cent of Australia's emissions despite having only 20 per cent of the national population. During the last 200 years mankind has been releasing extra quantities of greenhouse gas which is trapping more heat in the atmosphere. Over the same time period the climate of the Earth has warmed, and many scientists now accept that there is a direct link between the man-made enhancement of the greenhouse effect and global warming. Naturally occurring GHGs include: carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane and nitrous oxide.

GHG emission is also a by product of human activity. Scientists are concerned that current levels of emission through human activity is causing global warming. The GE is actually a natural and necessary process.
The sun’s rays heat the earth’s surface. The heat rises and encounters a greenhouse gas (GHG), some heat is dissipated into space and some returns to the earth.
The GE maintains the earth’s temperature and climate, without it the world would be a much colder place. The Greenhouse Effect The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the observed temperature increase or global warming since the middle of the 20th century was caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity. This panel is a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the United Nations to evaluate the risk of climate change. c) The Greenhouse Effect
and global warming Degradation of the environment and loss of the vast variety of life forms

Depletion of sources of energy

Threatening of the welfare of the global population. b) Effects of neglecting sustainable work practice a) Notion of sustainable work practice The ESD challenges us to question many things including the way we carry out our work. Work practices
. To enhance individual and community well-being and welfare by following a path of economic development that safeguards the welfare of future generations
. To provide for equity within and between generations
. To protect biological diversity and maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems What are the objectives of ecologically sustainable development (ESD)? “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”


Brundtland Commission of the United Nations Dictionaries provide more than ten meanings for sustain, the main ones being to “maintain", "support", or "endure”. Passive energy systems use available natural conditions such as sunlight and wind to warm or cool our living environment. The aspect of a building is critical to passive energy systems
In the southern hemisphere the north face of the building should allow maximum sunlight in winter; whereas the western face should be screened from the hot afternoon sun in summer Passive Energy Systems Although some energy-saving ideas may involve a substantial initial expense, in the long run the reduction in energy consumption saves money through reduced fuel bills. We can also help to reduce the consumption of energy used in manufacturing, by reducing the amount of waste we produce, re-using products, and recycling them where possible. Motion sensing devices can significantly reduce power consumption Motion sensing devices In an attempt to cut greenhouse gas emissions, standard incandescent light bulbs are set to be phased out from 2009 to 2010.
Compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) last between 6000 and 15,000 hours, compared with 1000 to 2500 hours for an incandescent bulb. Lighting ENERGY STAR® is an international standard for energy efficient electrical equipment. Star rated equipment Reduce Air travel Air travel is a large and rapidly growing contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. If you must fly, consider offsetting your emissions.
Drive efficiently If you must drive, consider carpooling which will reduce the number of cars on the road. Also, make sure your car is good working order, well tuned, and tyres are properly inflated. Other things you can do to reduce emissions making use of secure, local and replenishable resources
reducing dependence on non-renewable energy
helping to keep the air clean
helping to reduce the production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
helping to create jobs in renewable energy industries.

Geothermal, solar, wind, hydro, biomass and wave are all examples of renewable energies. Using renewable energy can provide many benefits, including:
The aim of this Act is to protect Queensland's environment while allowing for development that improves the quality of life while maintaining the ecological processes on which it depends. Environmental Protection Act
1994
“The role of the Department of Environment and Resource Management is to conserve and manage our natural environment for the benefit of all Queenslanders.” Qld Dept of Environment & Resource Management Under the Protocol, 37 industrialized countries commit themselves to a reduction of four GHGS (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) produced by them.

Initially Australia was not a signatory The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body tasked to evaluate the risk of climate change caused by human activity. The panel was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), two organizations of the United Nations. IPCC
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Kyoto Protocol
The Qld Dept of Environment & Resource Management e) The role of regulators & similar bodies Queensland is particularly vulnerable to climate change because:

Many of our key sectors are climate-dependent, such as agriculture and tourism
Most of our population lives on the coast and are at risk from more extreme weather and rising sea levels
Our ecologically rich areas, such as the Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics, are vulnerable to a significant loss of biodiversity. Climate Change If the climate changes in response to an enhanced greenhouse gas effect as current computer models have projected, global average surface temperature could be anywhere from 1.4 to 5.8°C (with a best estimate of 3°C) higher by the end of the 21st century. Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect Most HCFCs are broken down in the lowest part of the atmosphere, and pose a much smaller risk to the ozone layer than CFCs. Unfortunately HCFCs are also very potent GHGs, despite their very low atmospheric concentrations. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons
HCFC production began to take off after countries agreed to phase out the use of CFCs in the 1980s, which were found to be destroying the ozone layer. Chlorofluorocarbons
CFCs are wholly man-made and do not exist naturally. Introduced in the 1930s they have been widely used in aerosols, foam manufacture, air conditioning and refrigeration. They are much stronger GHGs than carbon dioxide, and they also destroy stratospheric ozone. Man made GHGs In 2006 the primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.8%, coal 26.6%, natural gas 22.9%, amounting to an 86% share for fossil fuels in primary energy production in the world. Fossil fuels are fuels formed by the natural process of the decomposition of buried dead organisms. It is a process that takes millions of years.

These fuels contain high percentages of carbon and hydrocarbons. Fossil fuels Burning of fossil fuels
Industrial emissions
Deforestation
Livestock
Waste disposal
Use of fertilizers
Man-made GHGs The types of human activity causing an increase in GHG emissions include: The natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth 33°C warmer than it would be without an atmosphere, at an average of +15°C. In contrast, the moon, which has no atmosphere, has an average surface temperature of -18°C. The greenhouse effect is the heating of the surface of a planet or moon due to the presence of an atmosphere containing gases that absorb and emit infrared radiation. Thus, greenhouse gases trap heat within the surface-troposphere system. The greenhouse effect A work practice is said to be sustainable if it can be used by both current and future generations without causing harm to the environment, life forms, and ecological systems. . Australia's governments have worked together to develop the National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development and the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment.
.The Queensland Government is acting to ensure that ESD becomes a part of all its programs and is adopted by the general community. Sustainability Apply Environmentally and sustainable procedures in the energy sector. Thermal resistance is known as the R-value. The higher the number the better the building insulation effectiveness.
Aerogel is an extremely efficient man-made insulator and has a very high R-value ‘R’ Insulation Rating for Windows The Trombe wall incorporates thermal mass into a masonry wall built behind a wall of windows. Providing a large storage capacity for heat, the masonry wall slowly absorbs the heat of the sun during the day. At night when heating is needed, vents are opened at the top and bottom of the wall to circulate air around the wall. Trombe wall
Everyone is responsible for acting in a way which will make our future sustainable. This includes local, State and federal governments, business, industry, community groups and individuals. Who is responsible for ESD? Although some energy-saving ideas may involve a substantial initial expense, in the long run the reduction in energy consumption saves money through reduced fuel bills. We can also help to reduce the consumption of energy used in manufacturing, by reducing the amount of waste we produce, re-using products, and recycling them where possible. Trade Related Technologies & Methods Domestic, commercial and industrial strategies g) Techniques for reducing carbon & GHGs Renewable energy generation projects create vibrant new industries in local communities, frequently in rural areas where the economy has not been thriving and therefore make contributions to society as a whole

Developing Australia's abundant sustainable low-cost energy resources is a key to our future prosperity. Australia is the world's fourth largest producer, and largest exporter, of coal. One day coal will run out, it is not renewable. IPCC reports are widely cited in almost any debate related to climate change. National and international responses to climate change generally regard the UN climate panel as authoritative. Such a rapid change in climate will probably be too great to allow many ecosystems to suitably adapt, and the rate of species extinction will most likely increase.
In addition to impacts on wildlife and species biodiversity, human agriculture, forestry, dry lands, water resources and health will all be affected. Most HCFCs are broken down in the lowest part of the atmosphere, and pose a much smaller risk to the ozone layer than CFCs. Unfortunately HCFCs are also very potent GHGs, despite their very low atmospheric concentrations. HCFCs are a group of man-made compounds containing hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon. They are not found anywhere in nature. Like CFCs, HCFCs are used for refrigeration, aerosol propellants, foam manufacture and air conditioning. In 2006 the primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.8%, coal 26.6%, natural gas 22.9%, amounting to an 86% share for fossil fuels in primary energy production in the world. During the last 200 years mankind has been releasing extra quantities of greenhouse gas which is trapping more heat in the atmosphere. Over the same time period the climate of the Earth has warmed, and many scientists now accept that there is a direct link between the man-made enhancement of the greenhouse effect and global warming. The natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth 33°C warmer than it would be without an atmosphere, at an average of +15°C. In contrast, the moon, which has no atmosphere, has an average surface temperature of -18°C. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the observed temperature increase or global warming since the middle of the 20th century was caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity. This panel is a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the United Nations to evaluate the risk of climate change. Degradation of the environment and loss of the vast variety of life forms

Depletion of sources of energy

Threatening of the welfare of future generations b) Effects of neglecting sustainable work practice “Sustainable development (work practice) is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”

(United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development) The Trombe wall incorporates thermal mass into a masonry wall built behind a wall of windows. Providing a large storage capacity for heat, the masonry wall slowly absorbs the heat of the sun during the day. At night when heating is needed, vents are opened at the top and bottom of the wall to circulate air around the wall. Trombe wall Passive energy systems use available natural conditions such as sunlight and wind to warm or cool our living environment. The aspect of a building is critical to passive energy systems
In the southern hemisphere the north face of the building should allow maximum sunlight in winter; whereas the western face should be screened from the hot afternoon sun in summer Passive Energy Systems Building design Thermostats and timers reduce energy consumption by automatically switching off devices that may otherwise have been left on. Thermostats and timers Motion sensing devices can significantly reduce power consumption Motion sensing devices Unlike incandescent bulbs that radiate light in 360 degrees, LED light is focused and directional.
LEDs have a long-lifespan of around 35,000-50,000 hours, compared to about 10,000 hours for fluorescents and 1,000 hours for incandescent.
Because of their low power requirement, LEDs are ideally suited for solar power. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Up to 90% of the energy an incandescent (standard) light bulb uses is wasted, mainly on heat.
Lighting represents around 12% of Australia’s domestic greenhouse gas emissions.
Globally, electric lighting generates emissions equal to 70% of those from all passenger vehicles. Did you know? In an attempt to cut greenhouse gas emissions, standard incandescent light bulbs are set to be phased out from 2009 to 2010.
Compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) last between 6000 and 15,000 hours, compared with 1000 to 2500 hours for an incandescent bulb. Lighting If all the compatible computers in Australia were ENERGY STAR enabled it would save companies and households more than $200 million in energy costs per year!
As most electricity in Australia is made by carbon dioxide-producing coal-fired power stations, this would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by over 2 million tonnes a year. This is equivalent to taking around 500,000 cars off the road! Did you know that … Reduce Air travel Air travel is a large and rapidly growing contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. If you must fly, consider offsetting your emissions.
Drive efficiently If you must drive, consider carpooling which will reduce the number of cars on the road. Also, make sure your car is good working order, well tuned, and tyres are properly inflated. Other things you can do to reduce emissions Switching to accredited green power schemes will allow you to significantly reduce your greenhouse gas emissions by using renewable energy to produce the electricity you use.

If you switch to 100% accredited GreenPower you could cut your carbon footprint by about 70%. Purchasing GreenPower is good for the environment and helps support Australia’s fledgling renewable energy sector. Keep windows shaded - Use awnings or blinds.
Wash your clothes in cold water -Electric hot water systems can produce up to 4 tonnes of greenhouse gases and account for half of your electricity bill.
Draught-proof your home. - By sealing gaps and cracks you can save up to 15% of your heating and cooling energy bill
Set your thermostat 1 degree warmer in summer and 1 degree cooler in winter. - Heating and air conditioning are big contributors to energy use. You can save up to 10% on your bill by simply making minor adjustments to your thermostat. Reduce your heating and cooling energy use. Switch off unused lights. Did you know that an average Australian home spends about $100 on lighting per year which emits about three quarters of a tonne of greenhouse gases?
Switch off appliances on standby. Appliances on standby can easily use up to 10% of your electricity when they are doing little or even nothing. At home Domestic

The Toward Q2 plan. As part of this plan (toward a greener Queensland), the Queensland government is committed to supporting households to reduce their electricity and car use by one-third by 2020.

The Q2 Program supports the phase out of existing electric hot water systems from 2010, and the national phase out from 2012. making use of secure, local and replenishable resources
reducing dependence on non-renewable energy
helping to keep the air clean
helping to reduce the production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases
helping to create jobs in renewable energy industries.

Geothermal, solar, wind, hydro, biomass and wave are all examples of renewable energies. Using renewable energy can provide many benefits, including: f) Economic benefits of sustainable initiatives
The aim of this Act is to protect Queensland's environment while allowing for development that improves the quality of life while maintaining the ecological processes on which it depends. Environmental Protection Act
1994 "This is the first official act of the new Australian Government, demonstrating my Government's commitment to tackling climate change“
PM Kevin Rudd Australia joined the Kyoto Protocol Dec. 2007 Under the Protocol, 37 industrialized countries commit themselves to a reduction of four GHGS (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) produced by them.

Initially Australia was not a signatory The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at combating global warming.

The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on 16 February 2005. KYOTO
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
The Kyoto Protocol
The Qld Dept of Environment & Resource Management e) The role of regulators & similar bodies Queensland is particularly vulnerable to climate change because:

Many of our key sectors are climate-dependent, such as agriculture and tourism
Most of our population lives on the coast and are at risk from more extreme weather and rising sea levels
Our ecologically rich areas, such as the Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics, are vulnerable to a significant loss of biodiversity. Climate Change Such impacts will be related to changes in rainfall, sea level, and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, resulting from global warming. To put this temperature change into context, the increase in global average surface temperature which brought the Earth out of the last major ice age 14,000 years ago was of the order of 4 to 5°C. This climate change took thousands of years. Man-made global warming, in contrast, may occur at rate that is unprecedented on Earth. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons
HCFC production began to take off after countries agreed to phase out the use of CFCs in the 1980s, which were found to be destroying the ozone layer. Chlorofluorocarbons
CFCs are wholly man-made and do not exist naturally. Introduced in the 1930s they have been widely used in aerosols, foam manufacture, air conditioning and refrigeration. They are much stronger GHGs than carbon dioxide, and they also destroy stratospheric ozone. Man made GHGs At 181 million tonnes in 2007, Queensland has the highest carbon footprint in Australia in absolute and per capita terms. Queensland creates 30 per cent of Australia's emissions despite having only 20 per cent of the national population. Fossil fuels are fuels formed by the natural process of the decomposition of buried dead organisms. It is a process that takes millions of years.


These fuels contain high percentages of carbon and hydrocarbons. Fossil fuels Naturally occurring GHGs include: carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane and nitrous oxide.

GHG emission is also a by product of human activity. Scientists are concerned that current levels of emission through human activity is causing global warming. The GE is actually a natural and necessary process.
The sun’s rays heat the earth’s surface. The heat rises and encounters a greenhouse gas (GHG), some heat is dissipated into space and some returns to the earth.
The GE maintains the earth’s temperature and climate, without it the world would be a much colder place. The Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is the heating of the surface of a planet or moon due to the presence of an atmosphere containing gases that absorb and emit infrared radiation. Thus, greenhouse gases trap heat within the surface-troposphere system. The greenhouse effect c) The Greenhouse Effect
and global warming A work practice is said to be sustainable if it can be used by both current and future generations without causing harm to the environment, life forms, and ecological systems. a) Notion of sustainable work practice
Everyone is responsible for acting in a way which will make our future sustainable. This includes local, State and federal governments, business, industry, community groups and individuals. Who is responsible for ESD? Australia's governments have worked together to develop the National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development and the Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment.
The Queensland Government is acting to ensure that ESD becomes a part of all its programs and is adopted by the general community. Sustainability “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”


Brundtland Commission of the United Nations Dictionaries provide more than ten meanings for sustain, the main ones being to “maintain", "support", or "endure”. EKAS 2.20.22 Solar-passive design The average air conditioner uses more energy than 12 ceiling fans.

Installing solar water heating, energy efficient appliances, and energy efficient lighting with controls could save up to $1400 in yearly running costs. Did you know that … In the typical Qld home …

Heating/air conditioning contributes 27% of power consumption

Hot water systems also contribute 27% of power consumption Did you know that … Incandescent $875.52
CFLs $209.61
LEDs $137.12

Cost includes initial purchase price of lighting device Lighting cost comparison based on 60,000 hrs of operation Energy efficient devices Don’t waste food. Buy only what you will eat. The production of food uses water and energy and the food we don’t eat creates waste. In Australia $5.3 billion of food was thrown away in 2004 .
Take public transport to get to work In Sydney, commuting to work accounted for a quarter of travel in 2005.
Walk or cycle rather than driving While cycling and the use of motor scooters and motorbikes is on the rise, the car remains the most popular way to get to work. Other things you can do to reduce emissions GreenPower is a government accreditation program for renewable energy.
When you choose to buy a GreenPower product, the few extra cents added to your electricity account each day is invested back into the renewable energy sector. Switch to GreenPower
“The role of the Department of Environment and Resource Management is to conserve and manage our natural environment for the benefit of all Queenslanders.” Qld Dept of Environment & Resource Management The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body tasked to evaluate the risk of climate change caused by human activity. The panel was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), two organizations of the United Nations. IPCC Climate change and the depletion of natural resources tells us that traditional work practices are not sustainable.
To initiate sustainability strategies regarding the work we do is no longer an option; it is an imperative. Sustainability
The Twin Imperatives: Climate Change and Sustainability d) International & national GH imperatives If the climate changes in response to an enhanced greenhouse gas effect as current computer models have projected, global average surface temperature could be anywhere from 1.4 to 5.8°C (with a best estimate of 3°C) higher by the end of the 21st century. Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect Burning of fossil fuels
Industrial emissions
Deforestation
Livestock
Waste disposal
Use of fertilizers
Man-made GHGs The types of human activity causing an increase in GHG emissions include: The ESD challenges us to question many things including the way we carry out our work. Work practices
to enhance individual and community well-being and welfare by following a path of economic development that safeguards the welfare of future generations
to provide for equity within and between generations
to protect biological diversity and maintain essential ecological processes and life support systems What are the objectives of ecologically sustainable development (ESD)? The R-value being discussed is the unit thermal resistance.
Aerogel is an extremely efficient man-made insulator and has a very high R-value ENERGY STAR® is an international standard for energy efficient electrical equipment. Star rated equipment Enviromentally sustainable work practice. Sustainable Development A 6 star energy equivalence ratings must be achieved for new houses, townhouses and units
This also applies to major renovations done to houses townhouses and units State Government RulesNew sustainable housing laws are hereEnergy equivalence ratings for houses, townhouses and units How to achieve the 6-star energy equivalence ratingThe rating is out of 10 stars—more stars indicate a more energy efficient and comfortable house. . Northern orientation of living rooms
. Natural ventilation through windows and doorways
. Shading with wider eaves and awnings
. Increased insulation in roof space and walls
. Treated glazing
. light coloured roofs and walls
. Ceiling fans in living areas and bedrooms
. Covered outdoor living areas, such as a deck or verandah connected to the building . In sub-tropical and tropical areas
well-designed outdoor living areas. A work practice is said to be sustainable if it can be used by both current and future generations without causing harm to the environment, life forms, and ecological systems.
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