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must vs. have to

The distinction between 'must' and 'have to'. Their usage, graphic comparisons and helpful examples to each point.
by

Natka x

on 27 September 2014

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Transcript of must vs. have to

must
and
have to
both express obligation.
must
For instance:
have to
Someone else
thinks it's necessary.
'Have to' expresses
external obligation
and is often used to describe our daily responsibilities and workplace situations.
have to
for instance:
must
The
speaker
thinks it's necessary or when the obligations seem important to the speaker.
must vs. have to
by Renata Góral
they are used differently depending on
who

imposes the obligation.
however,
I
must
buy flowers for my mother.
(It's her birthday and
I
decided to do that.)
I
must
tell you about a dream I had last night.
(Because
I
'd like to share with you.)
I
have to
buy flowers for my mother-in-law.
(It's not my decision -
my husband asked me to do it.
)
I
have to
send a report to Head Office every week.
(Because
my boss
told me to do that.)
comparison
must
have to
I
must
buy flowers for my mother.
I
have to
buy flowers for my mother-in-law.
I
must
ask my secretary to book a flight for me.
I
have to
call the travel agency.
(
I
decided to do that.)
(
My husband
asked me to do it.)
(It's important
for me
not to forget.)
(
My boss
asked me to book a flight.)
The differences between the present forms are sometimes small and subtle.
however,
There is a huge difference in the negative forms!
must
mustn't
have to
don't have to
haven't (got) to
negative- structure
(AmE)
(BrE)
mustn't
Prohibition
Used to express strong obligations NOT to do something.
mustn't
for instance:
We
mustn't
talk about it. It's confidential.
You
mustn't
leave your car unlocked. This place is full of thieves.
don't have to
Not required
Used to state that there is NO obligation or necessity.
don't have to
for instance:
You
don't have
to come if you don't want to.
We
don't have
to work overtime on Saturdays.
comparison
mustn't
don't have to
You
mustn't
tell George.
=It's important
not
to tell George =
don't tell
George.
You
don't have
to tell George.
=You can tell George
if you like
, but
it isn't necessary
. It's your decision.
important!
the past form of 'must' and 'have to' is 'had to.'
The distinction between the speaker's authority and external authority cannot be expressed and there is only one form:
had to
.
for instance:
I ran out of money and
had to
borrow from Tom.
There were no buses so he
had to
walk.
Did
he
have to
leave so early?
thank you for your attention!
by Renata Góral
Full transcript