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Daoism, Legalism, and Confucianism

Social Studies 2013

Lilian McCarthy

on 24 April 2013

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Transcript of Daoism, Legalism, and Confucianism

The Three Ideologies Daoism, Confucianism, Legalism Confucianism Legalism Philosophers Mengzi (Mencius) Xunzi Lilian and Confucianism Key Aspects Good and Bad Grand Master Kong Old Master Problems Daoism Solves Main Ideas Daoism Daoism was founded by Laozi, which means Old Master. He lived between 604 and 517 BCE. The main saying of Daoism is "go with the flow." During the time Daoism was founded, there
was much political unrest, which Daoism was meant to solve. In fact, Laozi had
started out being around politicians, but he
left that behind and moved to the mountains. Confucius lived from 551 to 478 BCE, during the Warring States period. His actual name was Kong Qiu.

Confucianism was first practiced during the Han Dynasty,
like Daoism. One key aspect of Confucianism is Ren (pronounced "Jen"). The best way to sum up Ren is with the words, "humanity, compassion, sympathy and understanding." Only the best people have Ren and when you seek it, you have found it. I think that Confucianism's bad parts outweigh the benefit of the good. Personally, I believe that personal expression is a must, and this ideology does not allow for any of that. I do agree that parental and ancestral respect is good, but the Confucian way seems somewhat extreme. However, it does make sense that if there is harmony in the home, there would be harmony in society. I just think that there are better and less "intense" ways of creating happy home, communal, and societal environments. As I mentioned, I think Daoism is the best of all three ideologies and is the most incorporated into my current life. However, many aspects of Confucianism are also present. For example, at school, respect is essential between students and their teachers, who are the superiors. If this respect did not exist, school would not function as well. From this, I can see Confucius' way of thinking that a well-organized home can lead to a better community. Otherwise, I do not think there are many other elements of Confucianism that I would like in my life. I think it is too controlling, and I don't want that to be part of how I interact with my family and others. Xunzi (310-220 BCE) and Mencius (373-288 BCE) collaborated to create the ideology of Legalism. They were two of the best known followers of Confucius. Mencius lived 200 years after Confucius. Xunzi believed that humans were essentially evil and weak. One must learn to be virtuous, as one is not born with virtue. Advice Those who practice Daoism desire to become formless and content. This was often achieved by living alone in nature. Living in nature should help you find yourself and go with the flow. Being yourself is key in Daoism. Lilian and Daoism Personally, I like Daoism the most
out of all the ideologies. I think nature
is very important, and since it is very important to Daoists, I can connect with that. However, I definitely think that I could incorporate nature into my life more and attempt to be more environmentally friendly. Laozi!! Daoism was first practiced during the Han Dynasty. The Han
Dynasty lasted from 206 BCE to 220 AD Confucius!! The Good and Bad Good things about Daoism are the
importance of the natural world and finding who you are on the inside.

However, the most pressing issue is that though becoming a Daoist is supposed to save society, Daoism gives no structure for salvation and does not support government, which I think is usually necessary to fix issues like the ones present during the Warring States period. Another absolutely essential part of Confucianism is filial piety, the respect of one's parents. A child should honor, listen to, and take care of his parents, living or dead. It is one of the strongest core values of Confucianism. The final key aspect of Confucianism and living as a Confucian is ancestor worship, which is part of filial piety. A grown child was expected to complete honoring rituals of all dead relatives and/or parents. When a female married into another family, she worshiped her husband's relatives, not her own. The purpose of Confucianism was to restore social and political problems of the Warring States period during the time of Grand Master Kong's life. He and his followers believed that the home was a smaller version (microcosm) of the greater society and those who knew their rightful place in a peaceful home would help create social harmony. Goal/Purpose Everyone should know exactly who he is and
what his place in the world is.
Being anything other than yourself leads to
unrest and unhappiness. Another key aspect of Daoism is that society and social interaction leads to gossiping, greed and rivalry, which means that Daoists were quite solitary and internal, preferring to spend time in nature. His ideas were put into a book called
The Discourses of Mencius. Mencius thought that order would be
restored when the three leaders of
the Western Zhou's ideas were put
into play again. Mencius also created a social order:
rulers, scholars and officials, then farmers. Craftsmen, merchants, and soldiers were not included because they were insignificant to him. What is an Ideology? By Lilian Rose McCarthy In accordance with this, he believed that the way to teach goodness was through harsh rules and even harsher punishments. Xunzi's ideas were put into a book called The Xunzi. It had 32 chapters. Solutions Like the other two ideologies, Legalism was meant to solve political and social issues. However, in Legalistic societies humans were viewed as naturally evil and had to learn virtue, unlike the other two in which humans were viewed as naturally good but became evil as their lives progressed. Good and Bad The main negative aspect of Legalism is the harsh punishments that take place in a Legalistic society. These punishments include amputation of feet, hands, and legs. Another bad aspect is convict laboring. After you had an extremity or two removed, you became a convict laborer, which means you would work for the government. However, from this convict laboring and harsh punishment came thousands and thousands of workers hard workers, and from these workers came the completion of major projects such as the Long Wall, the five major highways, and the systems of canals that connected the West River to the Yangtze. Good From these two different views - the good and the bad - there comes a question which we discussed in class and as homework: Did the ends justify the means? Were the innumerable deaths caused by overwork, starvation and punishment justified by the monumental tasks accomplished by the Qin that changed history forever? I personally do not think so; human lives are worth more than canals and roads, regardless of the historical importance. Legalism was practiced in the Qin dynasty, ruled by Shi Huangdi, which lasted from 221-206 BCE. Lilian and Legalism I think Legalism is horrible. There are no aspects of Legalism that I want to be in my life and there are no aspects that are already incorporated in my life. I hope that there are no Legalistic societies ever again. I would not want anybody to be controlled so intensely by government and punished so harshly. If the government is punishing people by cutting off their limbs, how would they be helpful by doing manual labor while missing a hand or something? It seems counter-productive. Sources http://www.abundance-and-happiness.com/lao-tzu-quotes.html
The Story of Ancient China. 3rd ed. N.p.: Wayside Publishing, 2012.
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ideology Daoism does not support government and
Daoists believe that a leader should leave
the people to their own lives, as that is
how things are meant to be. THE END!
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