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Biology A - Assignment #9
Transcript of Biology A - Assignment #9
Biology A - Assignment #9
The cell is the basic unit of life. All organisms are made up of living cells. Cells can be small and seem invisible without a microscope. Cells are covered by a membrane and each cell can be unique. The contents of a cell are called protoplasm.
The Animal Cell
All cells are contained by a cell membrane that keeps the pieces inside. It is a thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. This cell is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cells and blocking others.
The Cell Membrane
Spherical bodies containing many organelles is called the nucleus. The nucleus has many functions that it controls in the cell. It also contains DNA in chromosomes. The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.
A lysosome is an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane. Lysosomes is responsible for the cell's digestion of macromolecules, old cell parts, and microorganisms.
The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded, and convoulted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm. It stores lipids and steroids.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
The Gogli Appartus is a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracelluar transport. The Gogli Appartus is responsible for transporting, modifying, amd packaging proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to targeted destinations. It is located in the cytoplasm next to the Endoplasmic Reticulum and near the cell nucleus.
By Lyndsee Serafin (ls8796)
Cell Analogies -
(Also shortened to Smooth ER)
(Also shortened to Rough ER)
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded, and convoulted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm. It transports materials through the cell and produces protein in sacks called cisternae.
Mitochondria is an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers. It is nicknamed "the powerhouse" because it is responsible for making adenosine triphospate, which is the cell's main energy-carrying molecule.
The Nuclear Membrane is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleous in eukaryotic cells. The nuclear membrane consists of two lipid bilayers - the inner nuclear membrane, and the outer nuclear membrane. The Nuclear Membrane acts as a physical barrier, seperating the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm, like a filter.
The cytoskeleton is a microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells, giving them shape and coherence. The cytoskeleton helps keep the cell shape.
A chromosome is a threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the tramsmission of heredity system. Chromosomes play several roles in the animal body. They include giving genetics to offsprings, helps cells grow and divide, and guides other cells to cell development.
A nucleous is a small compartment found inside the nucleus of the cell. It also contains RNA monomers. The function of the nuleous is to assist RNA in turning the genetic code into a functional protein. This process is also known as translation.
The cytoplasm is made up of salt and water. It is the material within a living cell, excluding the nucleous. It is a jelly-like fluid that fills a cell. The function of cytoplasm is present within the cell membrane of all cell types and contains all organelles and cell parts.
A vacuole is a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid. In animal cells, vacuoles play a part by assisting in large processes of exocytosis and endocytosis. Sometimes the vacuoles are not found in animal cells.
Works Cited (Part 1)
"Animal Cell Anatomy - EnchantedLearning.com." Animal Cell Anatomy - EnchantedLearning.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/animals/cell/>.
Animal Cell with Nucleus. Digital image. Images Tutor Vista. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://images.tutorvista.com/cms/images/101/section-of-animal-cell-with-nucleus.png>.
Biological Cell. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Biological_cell_vacuole.svg/2000px-Biological_cell_vacuole.svg.png>.
Cell Membrane. Digital image. Classconnection. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/190/flashcards/674190/png/cell_membrane1316736004766.png>.
Cell Membrane. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_membrane.html>.
The Cell Nucleous. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/38/Diagram_human_cell_nucleus.svg/2000px-Diagram_human_cell_nucleus.svg.png>.
"Chromosome." The Free Dictionary. Farlex, n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/chromosome>.
Common Images. Digital image. Health Central. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2014. <http://www.healthcentral.com//common/images/8/8770_12622_5.jpg>.
Cytoskeleton. Digital image. Aleve Notes. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2014. <http://alevelnotes.com/content_images/i26_i23_ch1_cytoskeleton.jpg>.
Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2014. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cytoskeleton>.
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The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. "Lysosome (biology)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/353184/lysosome>.
"Endoplasmic Reticulum - Wrapping It Up." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Endoplasmic Reticulum. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014.
"Endoplasmic Reticulum - Wrapping It Up." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Endoplasmic Reticulum. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_er.html>.
ER Smooth. Digital image. Middle Town High School. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <https://middletownhighschool.wikispaces.com/file/view/er_smooth.jpg/98894279/er_smooth.jpg>.
"Function of Cytoplasm." Function of Cytoplasm. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.softschools.com/science/biology/function_of_cytoplasm/>.
Gogli Complex. Digital image. Biology Pop. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2014. <http://biologypop.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/golgicomplex.jpg>.
"Golgi+apparatus." The Free Dictionary. Farlex, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2014. <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Golgi%2Bapparatus>.
"Green Cells Group." Westfolk. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http%3A%2F%2Fbms.westfordk12.us%2Fpages%2Fteams%2F7green%2Fcells%2FGroupM%2Fimages%2FCYTo>.
"Mitochondria." Boundless. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <https://www.boundless.com/physiology/textbooks/boundless-anatomy-and-physiology-textbook/cellular-structure-and-function-3/organelles-45/mitochondria-are-responsible-for-a-cell-s-metabolic-activity-347-11451/>.
Mitochrondira. Digital image. How On Earth Radio. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2014. <http://howonearthradio.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/mitochrondria.jpg>.
"Nuclear Membrane." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Oct. 2014. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_membrane>.
"Ribosomes - Protein Construction Teams." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Structure: Ribosomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_ribos.html>.
Ribosomes. Digital image. Medialib. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. <http://c85c7a.medialib.glogster.com/media/02/02393eb7c696cdc9685a3e7dc11add48c6d23e8cefa0e3c00618487629349318/ribosomes.jpg>.
Wall Machine Image. Digital image. The Wall Machine. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2014. <http://thewallmachine.com/files/1347747629.jpg>.
"What Does a Nuclear Membrane Do in an Animal Cell?" Answers. Answers Corporation, n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://www.answers.com/Q/What_does_a_nuclear_membrane_do_in_an_animal_cell>.
"What Does the Cytoskeleton Do?" Answers. Answers Corporation, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2014. <http://www.answers.com/Q/What_does_the_cytoskeleton_do>.
Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuole#Animals>.
The Animal Cell is like a rare coin, it is unique and small. A coin is also one unit of a 100-coin bill, like how the cell is the unit of life.
A cell membrane is like a chocolate covered candy bar. Like the thin layer of protein and fat surrounding the cell, a chocolate bar has a layer of chocolate.
The Nucleus is like a beach towel. The beach towel has many functions, like using it to dry off, laying down in the sand, and to keep warm on chilly summer nights. The Nucleus has many functions too.
Ribosomes are like construction workers. They build houses, like how ribosomes build protein. In the end, the final product is eventually used for a big purpose.
The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is like a storage unit. They both store things.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is like a bus. Like how the Rough ER transports materials, a bus transports people.
The Gogli Appartus is like a package in the mail. You fold the flaps, transport it, and deliver it.
A lysosome is like a box of old artifacts. The box encloses the artifacts, and the artifacts are aged.
Mitochondria is like people attending a big concert. There is a large amount of people attending and they carry energy with them.
The Nuclear Membrane is like coffee. A coffee has filters, similar to how the Nuclear Membrane has a physical barrier acting as a filter.
The cytoskeleton is like the skeleton found in the human body. It supports bodily functions and also helps people stay in their shapes.
A chromosome is like a person giving a gift to another. The gift represents transportation and the gifter is one destination and the person receiving the gift is the final destination.
A nucleous is like a translator. A phrase spoken in one language can be translated to another language, just like how the nucleus can turn the genetic code into a functional protein.
The cytoplasm is like jell-o. It has a similar substance that cytoplasm has. Several ingredients in the jell-o are present, like how all cell types are present.
A vacuole is like a pen. Enclosed in the pen is ink, which is a fluid. A pen is an instrument used to write physically, assisting in some paper works.
Works Cited (Part 2 - analogy pictures)
Coin Grading. Digital image. Coin Week. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://www.coinweek.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/CoinGrading.jpg>.
Crowded Concert. Digital image. Edge Cast. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://wac.450f.edgecastcdn.net/80450F/bigfrog104.com/files/2013/09/174022571-630x419.jpg>.
Gift Giving. Digital image. Time Inc. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://img2.timeinc.net/health/images/gallery/living/pain-gift-giving-400x400.jpg>.
Hampton Beach Towel. Digital image. Amazon Aws. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://s3.amazonaws.com/cmi-niche/assets/pictures/26076/content_jemima-beach-towel.jpg?1373552787>.
International Flags Globe. Digital image. Thumbtack. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://pictures-e1.thumbtackstatic.com/pictures/406/zgkudux9hjq4ezi.png>.
Kaffee Filter. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ae/Kaffeefilter.jpg>.
Lace Flowers Crown Pens. Digital image. Allimg. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://i00.i.aliimg.com/wsphoto/v0/628540480/Free-Shipping-New-sweet-lace-flowers-crown-ball-pen-gift-pen.jpg>.
London Bus. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/ac/Arriva_T6_nearside.JPG>.
Mail Packages. Digital image. Blogspot. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_ZVvQxydC4d4/ScqEmWgfLHI/AAAAAAAAAWU/bKqieb5Lik8/s400/IMG_5670.jpg>.
Million dollar house. Digital image. Elevated Pics. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://www.elevatedpics.com/images/IMGP1263Bv2.jpg>.
Mystery Box. Digital image. CTV News. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://www.ctvnews.ca/polopoly_fs/1.1885561!/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_620/image.jpg>.
Red Jell-o. Digital image. Organic Authority. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://www.organicauthority.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/jello.jpg>.
Small Chocolate Candy Bar. Digital image. Ultimate Chocolate Shoppe. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://www.ultimatechocolateshoppe.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/06/chocolatecandybarxsmall3-300x199.jpg>.
Storage Unit. Digital image. Handy Space. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://handyspace.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/storage_unit.jpg>.
Thoughtful Skeleton Pose. Digital image. Shutterstock. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. <http://image.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/3223/3223,1129559414,2/stock-photo-this-is-an-skeleton-in-a-thoughtful-pose-638329.jpg>.