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Sweden and the Great Northern War
Transcript of Sweden and the Great Northern War
Great Northern War The
Monarch Charles also tried to keep the Swedish legacy, but he ultimately leaves Sweden in the Great Northern War. What was Charles XII's fate? Nobody knows for sure The Facts In 1718, Charles invaded
Normandy once more. On December 11, while inspecting trenches on the border of their perimeter, Charles was killed by a projectile. The shot was clean, penetrating from the right side of his head and exiting from the left. Theories Conspiracy? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Enemy shot? Friendly fire? Assassinated for profit? Charles' corpse has been exhumed on 3 occasions to determine the cause of his death; in 1746, 1859, and 1917. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Gustavus Adolphus Gustavus Adolphus II Christina Wasa Charles XII Charles XII Christina Wasa Gustavus Adolphus Gustavus Adolphus II Adolphus I had military supremacy during the 30 Years War. He had RELIGIOUS and POLITICAL power BALANCE He was also a Protector of Protestantism. Adolphus II reigned from 1611-1632. After the 30 Years War, he kept his father’s legacy, maintaining a flourishing country. He poised to be a major military leader, but he was killed at Battle of Lutzen. “Within only a few years of his accession Sweden had become the largest nation in Europe after Russia and Spain.” [Wikipedia] Adolphus II's nickname is “The Father of Modern Warfare” aka the First Great Modern General. He was the founder of the Sweden Empire during the Golden Age of Sweden, also referred to as the Golden King or the Lion of the North. “Widely regarded as the archetype of what a king should be and one of the few European kings and sovereign princes during the seventeenth century worthy of the office.” [New World Encyclopedia] The Queen of Sweden reigned from 1632-1652 . After a nervous breakdown in 1652, she named Charles Gustav X as her successor. Under his reign, Russia intimidates and threatens the Swedes. The Romanov's came into power - Peter the Great focus towards Western Europe, which involves going through Sweden. Russia Peter the Great wins the Great Northern War. Charles XII dies after the war, and Sweden loses power in that region of Europe. Great Northern War Denmark, Poland, and Russia join and declare war. (Anti-Swedish coalition) The "Anti-Swedish coalition" attacks Sweden, thinking that Charles XII would be a weak link for Sweden. They also believed that Sweden had too much territory, and it was vulnerable for siege. Before the war... And then... November 12, Swedes destroy Russian Army of 23,000. Charles XII signs Treaty of Warsaw with Poland (February 1705). Charles gained control of Poland (1706) and forced Russians and Saxons out. During the winter of 1708-1709, there was major impact on Sweden’s army which was camped in Ukraine. The under equipped and malnourished Swedish army headed to Russia, giving Russia an advantage. In June and July of 1709, Sweden suffers a military defeat at the Battle of Poltava. The tables turn, and Sweden is no longer a major powerhouse in Europe. Charles XII eventually cannot return to Sweden, so he escapes to Turkey. A contributing factor as to why Sweden lost was because their major source of income was iron and lumber, which were not of high demand and couldn't provide the necessary income for war. Battle of Narva
• 1700, Russian army is defeated by Swedish
• Charles overthrows Polish king Agustus II
• Charles signs the Treaty of Altranstadt As the Golden Age comes to an end, and there is civil unrest in Sweden... Post Great Northern War Nobility breakdown... There is no clear leader.
Sweden sustains control over regional areas, however loses its influence over larger boundaries.