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Transcript of Ch 6
Anion- add one electron for each (-) charge
Electron Configuration of Ions
loss of one ore more electrons
electron(s) is/are removed from a neutral atom
is smaller than the host atom
due to the removal from a large valence shell orbital and an increased in Zeff for the remaining electrons
"B" Group Electron Configurations
Ch 6: Ionic Bonds and Some Main Group Chemistry
gain of one or more electrons
electron(s) is/are added to a neutral atom
is larger than the host atom
due to a decrease in Zeff and and increase in electron-electron repulsions
Energy required to remove an electron from a gas phase atom.
Ionization Energy, Ei
1st and 2nd Ionization Energies
Energy released when and electron adds to a gas phase atom.
Electron Affinities (Eea)
"A" Group configurations
lose valence shell "s" electron first
then lose "d" electrons if necessary
Ion formation removes an electron from the valence shell (highest occupied
- all species have the SAME number of electrons
What do you notice about their sizes?
Down a Group- larger atom, less tightly held electrons
Across a Period- smaller atoms, more tightly held electrons
Ex. Be and B
Easier to remove the single 2p electron
Ex. N and O
paired electrons easier to remove electron
Core electrons are relatively
difficult to remove
Ea generally increases left to right except for noble gases
Main-group elements tend to undergo reactions that leave them with eight outer-shell electrons. That is, main-group elements react so that they attain a noble-gas electron configuration with filled s and p sublevels in their valence electron shell.
The Octet Rule
Ionic Solid Formations
-Measure of the strength of solids' ionic bond.
Metals tend to have low Ei and low Eea.
They tend to lose one or more electrons.
Nonmetals tend to have high Ei and high Eea.
They tend to gain one or more electrons.
Exceptions??? 3rd period or lower
Alkaline Earth Metals