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Information & Systems

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Nicholas Gymer

on 8 October 2015

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Transcript of Information & Systems

It is a group of people with a specific purpose.

Organisations differ in:
Type/structure
Scale
Nature
Management style


What is an organisation?

Advantages of the hierarchical structure:
An individuals authority and responsibility are clearly defined.
The effective use of specialist managers is encouraged.
Problems with the hierarchical structure:
Decisions take a long time to be made
Communications across sections can be poor.


Type or Structure:
Very large organizations such as Microsoft or Exxon have far-reaching and diverse information needs.

Small organizations such as local charity's have different information needs. It would be run by volunteers.

Your information needs depend on the scale of the organisation.

Scale:

One type of management style is
Autocratic
-
This style is when you want complete control of the business. E.g. Bill Gates was the senior manager that made all the decisions.




Management Style:
Strategic level:
Highest level, which consists of senior management, long term planning, and decision making. Might include whether to open a new factory or start to produce a completely new product.

Tactical level:
Consists of middle management, who are in charge of one particular area of the business. The decisions they have to make include: What training courses to offer staff, timetable issues and teaching materials to buy.

Operational level:
This is the lowest level of management, consisting of workforce making the product, taking sale orders and keeping the accounts. An example of something at this level would be the price.
Levels of task within an Organisation
Ordering systems
Order management systems- allow businesses to manage distribution of goods from supplier to customer in an automated way that will save time.

Customer support
Good customer support results in future sales. To provide good cutomer support a business should provide information on a range of matterslike past purchases.
Activities within an organisation
Different members of an organisation have different information needs.

E.g. A member of the accounts department needs information relating to financial transactions
Information needs of different people
Certain information will be needed by suppliers as well as customers. For most organisations an extranet is set up to allow access to parts of their inforion system.

E.g. A school may allow parents of a pupil access to their attendance levels.
Exchanging information with external bodies
Many different management styles can be successful for a company.
Another type of management style is
Democratic
- This is where employees are expected to take part in decision making. Information needs to be widely available to many employees.
An organization could be a
pyramid
or
flat
structure
, being flat or horizontal.

The pyramid structure is a traditional shape of an organizational structure in a large business.




In a flat structure there are fewer layers, the spans of control are much higher. Power to make decisions for yourselves may need to be delegated. Employees will have more responsibility leading to more motivation.

Advantages of the flat structure:
Greater communication
Less bureaucracy
Disadvantages:
Role of managers not always clear
Weakened control of top management


Flat Structure:
Role of ICT systems:
The role of them is to imprve the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes. - Supports the activities of the organisation
Information
and Systems
Full transcript