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Human Reproduction

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Ms. Toerper

on 8 March 2016

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Transcript of Human Reproduction

Human Reproduction
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
How were you made?
The Endocrine System
Function:
links the endocrine system and nervous system. Stimulates pituitary gland to secrete hormones.
Tampons for guys?
Glands:
ductless or tubeless organs or groups of cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Maintains Homeostasis
Hormones:
chemical substances that help regulate parts of the body.
Balance
Hormone:
Melatonin
Function:
affects the onset of puberty, and regulates sleep cycles.
Hormone:
All of them!
Function:
Regulates and controls the activities of all other endocrine glands
Hormone:
Parathyroid hormone
Function:
produces a hormone that regulates body's balance of calcium and phosphorus
Hormone:
Testosterone
Function:
Produces sperm for fertilization
Hormone:
Estrogen and progesterone
Function:
produces egg cells for fertilization
Hormone:
Thyoxine
Function:

Regulates metabolism, body heat, and bone growth
This guy is the MASTER!
Hormone:
Glucagon and insulin
Function:
Serves as a digestive and endocrine system, and regulates glucose in the blood
Function:
Regulates the immune system
Let's introduce these little guys...
Makes growth hormone
Hormone:
Adrenaline
Function:
Hormones:
Somatotropic
Thyroid-Stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Lutenizing Hormone (LH)

Function:
Females- Stimulates ovulation and estrogen

Males- Stimulates sperm and testosterone
Sperm production begins around 11-16 years old. 200-300 million sperm released per ejaculation viable for 48-72 hours.
Activity
Make a word search!
Get a piece of graph paper.
The words to find must be fill in the blanks! (ex: 1. The gland that produces adrenaline is_________).
Put the answers going down, up, diagonal, or backwards in the graph. (one letter per box)
Fill in the empty spots with random letters.
Learn new things from new people.

It's a confusing or uncomfortable topic and people usually "shy" away from it
Why do we learn the Reproduction System?
Adrenal gland at work
Or BOTH?
How long does sperm live outside of the body
Why does the scrotum move
A subtle pulsing/vibration may be due to testicular circulation.
Veins and arteries allow the blood flow to run through the entire scrotum.

More pronounced movement? Testicles are temperature sensitive sperm factories. Sperm need to be kept at a certain temperature to be happy and healthy. When sperm gets cold, they snuggle up and get warm. Feeling stuffy, they can hang lower to get cool.
What is the average size of a penis
5.6 inches erect
Do guys really get "blue balls"
3) Bottom line, it's not dangerous, and he can deal with it, whether that means giving himself a helping hand or just waiting it out. The blood will eventually drain, and any discomfort will disappear on its own.
1) "Blue balls" is a slang term referring to testicular aching that may occur when the blood that fills the vessels in a male's genital area during sexual arousal is not dissipated by orgasm.
2) It's called blue balls because the blood that's been in the scrotum for a while loses oxygen and can give the appearance of a bluish tinge
The testosterone causes the larynx to grow and his vocal cords to get longer and thicker. Vocal cords are thin muscles that stretch across the larynx like rubber bands.
Why does testosterone make the voice deeper
Why do girls only have menstruation cycles and boys don't
Menstruation is due to the lining of the uterus preparing for a baby.
Why do hormones cause people to be moody
This is called PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome). Fluctuations of serotonin that is thought to play a crucial role in mood states. Insufficient amounts of serotonin may contribute to premenstrual depression, as well as to fatigue, food cravings and sleep problems.
How and why does menopause occur
Menopause is the point in time when a woman's menstrual periods stop. Menopause happens because the ovaries stop producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Conception
Fertilization
Ovulation Cycle
Family Planning Method ( also a birth control method) that tracks your ovulation cycle.
The two gametes (sperm and egg cells) combine and start to split to make the new DNA for the zygote
Egg is released and swept into the fallopian tube by fimbra.
If sperm cells are present,
they propel themselves into the uterus and on toward the tube.
Egg cell and sperm unite in tube, forming fertilized egg cell.

200 to 300 million sperms cells propel themselves toward the egg, but only one sperm cell can unite with it to make a fertilized egg cell

Fertilized egg embeds itself into the uterine wall
Meiosis
Answers for the Labels
Answers for Functions
Fill in the blanks with the label and then write 4-5 word definition of it's function
200,000 eggs
PROSTATE
PROSTATE
Semen is made
Or you could have been a really good swimmer
Embryonic Development: A Pregnancy Timeline
http://tinyurl.com/mbk634a
Timeline I created used the website Tiki-Toki.
The images were from:
http://tinyurl.com/cn5rah8 and http://tinyurl.com/k7ej6es
Videos by Lennart Nilsson:
http://web.tt.se/lennart_nilsson_video/index_m.html
Photographer- Lennart Nilsson
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/odyssey/nilsson.html
Normal Stages of Birth
Abnormal Birthing Position for the Baby
C-Section
Conjoined twins- One egg that divided almost completely. Stayed connected somewhere. Identical twins
SIGNS OF PREGNANCY

Birthing process
Normal ~ head first- labor last for 12-16 hours
Breech- butt or feet first
Caesarean-delivery through the stomach(c-section)

Natural=
No drugs

1 in 4 teens will get a sexually transmitted disease by having unprotected sex with more than 1 partner.

7 out of 10 teenage mothers will complete high school, but only ¼ of these will end up going to college.

Younger girl the less likely will use birth control and if they become pregnant will be pregnant soon again.

Once the first child is born, ¼ of the teenager mothers will have a second child within two year.


2-3 times more likely to die first year prematurely, low birth weight, mental development, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, premature births increase with each pregnancy before age 20.


Absence of menstruation
Breast changes
Nausea- vomiting
Urinary frequency
Did you know?
1 in 10 teenagers will be involved in a pregnancy or
1 million girls each year between the ages of 15-19 years.

1/5 of the births are to teens

Teenagers under 15 years have the largest increase of risk and faces greatest medical risks, least able to care for baby.
Female eggs have only
X
chromosomes.
Male sperm have
X
and
Y
chromosomes.

If: a female
X
meets a male
X
=
girl XX
a female
X
meets a male
Y
=
boy XY
Physical immaturity, no prenatal care
Poor nutrition
Toxemia- high blood pressure after 24th week
Anemia- iron deficiency, need extra iron
Bleeding- in later stages of pregnancy
Prolonged labor- abnormal position of fetus
Risk to the Baby:
Risks to the Mother
TWINS
Multiple births a combination of identical or fraternal.
Triplets
SEX CHROMOSOME PATTERN:

Fraternal: result from 2 eggs that were both fertilized. Can be either sex, and different sets of chromosomes.
Identical: results from one egg that divided completely during cell reproduction (mitosis). Must be the same sex as they have identical sets of chromosomes.
Education, job, career
Relationships- peers, parents
Loss of freedom
Loss of childhood
Decision making regarding baby
Medical and physical problems of pregnancy
Social and Emotional Implications:
Activity
1. Go to text2mindmap.com
2. Create your own cost of pregnancy mind map
3. You must:
Make the main topic, "Cost of Pregnancy"
Have the categories:
Money cost before pregnancy
Money cost after pregnancy
Effects on your:
Family
Friends
Yourself
Your relationship with the baby's mom/dad
School
Job
Have minimum of 5 items under each category.
More than ½ of teens over 15 and 1/5 of teens under 15 are sexually active

90% of sexually active teens who don’t use contraception will become pregnant within their first year of having intercourse.
Who can read the stats?
four babies - quadruplets or quads
five babies - quintuplets or quints
six babies - sextuplets
seven babies - septuplets
eight babies - octuplets
What do you call this many babies
Twins do run in families because it is a gene that is passed down. However, there is no "set" skipping generation.

Yes. The mother is at first pregnant with fraternal twins, then one of the fraternal twins egg splits into two, resulting 2 identical and one fraternal.
Usually by In Vitro Fertilization (involves combining eggs and sperm outside the body in a laboratory)

or

Artificial Insemination (sperm are inserted directly into a woman's cervix, fallopian tubes, or uterus. This makes the trip shorter for the sperm and bypasses any possible obstructions)
How do multiple births happen?
Can you have triplets with 2 identical and one not identical?
Do twins skip every other generation?
Do twins have the same growth rate?
Not really. Identical twins who share a placenta may be in competition for nutritional resources, and the twin at a disadvantage experiences some level of growth restriction.
Fraternal twins is simple genetics. Just as any two siblings may be taller or shorter or thinner or wider, fraternal twins inherit their own unique set of DNA characteristics that influence their size.

How does it start?
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