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The Mughal Empire
Transcript of The Mughal Empire
The First Emperor; Babur -Babur was the first Mughal emperor to take over India, which was in control of Rajputts at the time. -Babur took over Delhi in 1526
- the rein of Babur lasted from 1526 to 1530 - Full name was Zahir ud-din Muhammad Babur Died in December 26, 1530, his son Humayun succeeded him and took the thrown. - his origin was steeped in Persian culture, which is why Muhgal art in india is so heavly influenced by Persian culture. Humayun -Full name was Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun. - Second Emperor
- Ruled present day Afghanistan, pakistan, and parts of northern India -lost his kingdom to Pashtun nobles but regained it with persain support - Died in March, 1556
- his Successor was his son, Akhbar Akhbar - Full name was Jalaluddin Muhammad Akhbar. - was the age of 13 when he recieved the throne.
- considered the greatest Mughal emperor. -During his reign, he eliminated all military threats.
- Solidified his rule by pursuing diplomacy with the Rajputs.
-Married a Rajput princess, Jodha. - Died in october, 1605
- his successor was his son, jahangir. -took great interst in art and literature, and encouraged arts and paintings.
- commissioned major buildings. At the end of his reign in 1605 Mughals were in control of most of northern India. Jahangir - Full name was Nur-ud-din Salim Jahangir - was the first from three sons of Akhbar to survive - punished ShrI Guru Arjun Dev Ji because He gave Jahangir's brother, Khusrau Mirza money when he visited Guru Ji. - Forcibly declared himself king, once Akhbar went away on an expedition, who then returned and took back the throne. - preserved the Mughal tradition of having a highly centralized form of government.
- Followed his father's foot-steps, and was determined to take control of all of India. - Held much interst in arts
- Conquered Kashmir, which his father had failed to do.
- Died on 1627, a result of drinking too much alcohol.
- Succeeded by Shah Jahan, his third son. Shah Jahan Aurangzeb - Full name was Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I - Built the Taj Mahal for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal - built the Pearl Mosque, all of the 'old delhi', and many other famous buildings - mother was a Rajput - Died in 1627 and passed the throne on to his son Aurangazeb. -Third son of Jahangir - Made strict laws in favour of the Islamic faith.
- Increased the size of the Mughal army. - Shah Jahan became ill, his sons fought over the throne and Aurangazeb won
- When shah Jahan got better, Aurangezeb put him under house arrest in Agra Fort, where he then died after a few years. Muhi ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I - Ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 5 years.
- Second longest reigning Mughal emperor after Akhbar. - Reign lasted from the year1658 untill his death in 1707. - Destroyed art in the fear that people will worship them in the form of idols.
- Strict Muslim, destroyed temples and built Mosques over top. - Banned music, anyone found with instruments was arrested and the instrument was destroyed.
- without music many Hindu-inspired practices were hard. - expanded greatly in the size of military and control of land, and his commond grew weaker throughout the vast empire. - He alienated many of his childern and wives, driving some into exile and imprisoning others. - Died at the age of 88, and the throne was given to his son Bahadur Shah I. The End of the Mughal Empire - Though there were many other Mughal emperors who took the throne, it was after Aurangzeb that the Mughal Empire started to fall apart, partly because of its large size.
- many factors led to the decline of the mughal Empire, one of them was British Colonialism. The Mughal Government -The emperor was an autocrat and had unlimited freedom
- Though he had a council of ministers, he didnt need to consult them
- Followed Islamic traditions -There were no formal written laws, but Emperors usually attemped to improve the lives of their subjects.
- Anyone unloyal was punished severely with the approval of the emperor. Writing and Language - - Communicated in the language Urdu, which was developed from Hindi, Persian, Arabic and Chaghatai Turkic.
-Developed as Indian and Islamic cultures mixed during the time of the Mughal Empire.
- Muslims speak Urdu to this day Economy - the mughal economy ran by revenue collection and by trade and industry.
- taxed money obtained from poor farmers and the working class was stored in royal treasures. - Mughals traded with Europe, Arabia and Southeast Asia
- Exported spices, silk, cotton etc. and imported gold, silver, horses, ivory.
- Trades were done over water - believed in one god, allah
- Guided by the holy book, Quran and the teaching of Islam Muhammad - AutoCannon, multi-barrel, Hookah, and Prefabricated houses were all invented in Akbar's Reign. The End.