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ancient china qin dynasty or whatever

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Sonia Kozlowski

on 31 May 2013

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Transcript of ancient china qin dynasty or whatever

Ancient China By: Emma Secord & Sonia Kozlowski Xia Dynasty
2100-1600 BCE Ancient Chinese people settled in
the Yellow River Basin in 3500 BCE Shang Dynasty
1600-1046 BCE Zhou Dynasty
1045-221 BCE Qin Dynasty
221-207 BCE Western Han Dynasty
206 BCE - CE 9 Xin Dynasty
9-24 CE Eastern Han Dynasty
25-220 CE Three Kingdoms
(Wei, Shu, Wu)
220-280 CE Western Jin Dynasty
265-316 CE Eastern Jin Dynasty
317-420 CE Southern and
Northern Dynasties
420-588 CE Tang Dynasty
618-907 CE Geography & Climate Ancient China was build on two principle rivers, the Yellow River (Huang He) in the North and the Yangtze River in the South. Because the soil by the rivers was moist and full of nutrients, millet was easy to grow. By the Yangtze River people grew many water-plants such as rice and water chestnuts. As well as having dogs, pigs and cattle, people in the South had water buffalos which worked the soil for an even better turn out of crops. Geography & Climate Monsoon winds which blow North from the Indian Ocean over Asia lead to an enormous amount of rain water over the Himalayan Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau. This water and the rich nutrients that come along with it flow across the Chinese Plain and create fertile farmland. Becase this part of China was right by the Pacific Ocean, temperatures are moderate with cool and dry winters which transform into warm 1st Emperor of the Qin Dynasty: Qin Shi Huang Legend says that a rich merchant named Lu Buwei who was friends with a prince of the Qin State during the latter years of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, married a woman named Zhao Ji. Lu Buwei arranged for his wife to meet the prince so that they could fall in love. His wife become the prince's concubine, but when she gave birth in 259 BCE, the child was not his, but Lu Buwei's. The baby was named Ying Zheng. The prince thought the baby was his own.

When Ying Zheng's supposed prince father died, he became king of the Qin state at age 13. Lu Buwei (prime minister) acted as regent for the first 8 years. He also wanted to get rid of Ying Zheng before the king figured out who his real father was. Lu Buwei and Lao Ai (a man famous for his large penis) rebelled against the Qin state while King Zheng was travelling. This attempt failed drastically. Lao was executed, Lu Buwei was banished, and it was only the beginning of King Zheng's paranoia. 1st Emperor of the Qin Dynasty: Qin Shi Huang In 221 BCE King Zheng unified all of the warring states of China and created the first centralized empire in Chinese history. He then proclaimed himself as Qin Shi Huang. Making one nation out of the states was such a great achievement, it seemed to have surpassed the achievements of past two legendary emperors, San Huang and Wu Di. King Zheng combined their names into one single word, Huangdi, which meant 'emperor.' Shi means first, so literally translated, Qin Shi Huang is "the first emperor of China." He divided his kingdom into 36 'provinces' which were further divided into smaller units, comparable to cities. The central government had 12 ministers, and they answered directly to the emperor. Army officers were also chosen by the emperor. Qin Shi Huang employed and replaced everyone in this system. With this, he secured control over military and civilian business. This form of administration remained in use for the next 2000 years of imperial rule in China. Qin Shi Huang believed that agriculture and trade were the most important components of development and carefully developed both. In stride with unifying China, he introduced only one currency throughout the nation and connected the roads of different states These tactics gave an additional boost to economic and cultural development. 1st Emperor of the Qin Dynasty: Qin Shi Huang As he grew older, Qin Shi Huang became more and more obsessed with finding the secret to immortality. Possibly while drinking a mercury potion which he had ordered numerous doctors to make, he told a servant Xu Fudong to set sail in search for the elixir of life. He left with thousands of young boys and girls. They never returned to China, maybe because they were scared of being punished for returning empty-handed. Legend says that they found and populated the island we now know as Japan. Economy Just a brief introduction... Culture From what is known of the Qin Dynasty, a fun social environment is not one of them. Qin Shi Huang led with a reign known for extremely strict legal code, penalty and harsh taxation. Between building the Great Wall and constructing matching roads throughout China to solidify the union, his commands drained the people of energy and resources. His populus was discontent and rebelled soon after his death. 2nd Emperor of the Qin Dynasty: Qin Er Shi Qin Er Shi, or Hu Huang was the 18th son of Qin Shi Huang. To be king, he excuted his brother Li Si after his father's death in 210 BCE and succeeded the throne. He was rude, spoiled, lazy and a horrible emperor. He believed that being emperor meant all play and no work, and his cruel and uncaring rule lead to a huge peasant uprising. Hu Huang ruled as emperor for 3 years before he cut his own throat. Emperors & Government Emperors & Government Emperors & Government Emperors & Government Emperors & Government Legalism The philosophy of legalism in the Qin Dynasty pretty much overruled everything else. It was not based on religion, or on fear of the afterlife, however on utility. The idea was to create ideal citizens who would surrender their will to that of the state. The state would make decisions and think for the people. People were automatically assumed as evil, and wrong behaviour resulted in harsh punishments in order to reprimand the criminal and discourage further rebellion. Culture The 5 Pains As a brutal form of execution, Qin Shi Huang enforced this method. A criminal, be it anyone who opposed him and his government, a scholar or just a rebel, would be a victim of the 5 pains. First the victim's nose was cut off, then a hand, then a foot. The victim was then castrated and finally cut in half by the waist. Fun Fact!! Li Si, the guy who invented the 5 pains as a form of capital punishment actually died this way himself.........karma Qin Shi Huang used mandatory labor to build luxurious palaces to satisfy his desires. He also tried to keep his citizens from learning and studying. He was petrified of being overthrown by scholars smarter than himself, so he burned Citizens had to pay extremely high taxes which were spent on the military, which Qin Shi Huang was constantly expanding. The money also went to funding the emperor's many building projects. They were forced to perform military service. All this was justified by the emperor's belief in legalism. The state was the most important thing, and citizens lived to serve the state. all scrolls and books he could find. He even started killing scholars in an attempt to stop the spread of knowledge. Culture Emperors & Government Legalism Chinese philosopher Han Fei disregarded everything Confucius taught, and his beliefs were the basis for the Qin Code, a book detailing the laws at that time. Han Fei also invented the 'trinity' which emperor Qin Shi Huang followed. It was made up of the following: FA SHU SHI Fa was the law or principle, which must be clearly written in public. All were equal under the law. Laws rewarded those who obeyed them and punished those who did not Shu was a method or tactic which were employed by the ruler to make sure other people do not get control over the state Shi was the power and charisma of the ruler Culture Contrary to many other societies, the Qin Dynasty was not too big on human sacrifice. They did, however, set a beautiful young virgin afloat on a raft in the Yellow River. She was dressed in wedding finery to be the wife of the god of the Yellow River and doomed to sink with the raft. This was done in hope that the god would be appeased and not flood. Art Art The biggest and most known form of 'art' that the Qin Dynasty has to offer are the Terracotta warriors. They are funeral objects in Qin Shi Huang's masoleum. Whether they were constructed to protect the emperor or to lead him to the afterlife is unclear. In the tomb there are life-size soldiers and horses made of pottery, which were lined in orderly ranks, as if ready for the emperor's inspection. In total there were over 7,000 pottery soldiers, over 100 chariots, over 4,000 pottery horses and as many as over 100,000 weapons found. The weapons found were still sharp such as swords, spears, halberds and rocked blades, even after being buried for over 2000 years.
What was incredibly amazing about these Terracotta warriors was that each individual statue had an individual face. They were dressed according to rank, and were as life-like as could possibly be. Pottery from the Qin & Han Dynasties were very similar. The pottery was made from mostly grey clay, which was very delicate alone. People would mix sand into the clay to reinforce it. Because the iron oxide and burning temperature component varies among the different types of clay the colours of these vases could range from grey, to red, to black. There were two textures of clay: hard and soft. Hard clay was used to make items that were used daily wheras soft clay was decorated and used for special occasions. Both soft clay and hard clay utensils could be engraved with string patterns to create different looks. Art Although this is more along the lines of architecture, the ends of these roof 'tiles' reflect an art that becomes prevalent throughout the dynasties, not only the Qin. Food Like all ancient civilizations food in Ancient China had to be grown and harvested. Mainly rice was grown in the south of China. Water bison pulled the plows in the marshes. Even with the help of these animals, men still had to do most of the agricultural work. They would cut wheat, carry crops by a pole across their shoulders and loosen grain.
The Ancient Chinese used irrigation to help harvest the rice in the south, which was powered by man. They had foot pumps which pumped water out of the marshy areas so that the rice was easier to harvest. Ashes and manure were used to fertilize crops, and another way to ensure a healthy harvest was to rotate crops. Other than rice, Chinese people grew cabbage, soybeans, peas and bamboo shoots among many others.
It wasn't until the Han Dynasty that China turned their wheat and rice into long noodles. Ancient China introduced many things to the economy like the use of coins and money. This was done to facilitate trade so that prices would be uniform and there would be less debate and confusion. China traded to most of the ancient world and their products could be found in the far stretches of the then known world. Common things that were exported from Ancient China were fish, cattle, silk and tea. Through the famous Silk Road (a group of trading routes that connected Asia, the Mediterranean, and Europe) they were able to trade with places like Greece and India receiving many luxurious items in return like lapis lazuli, coral, jade, glass, and pearls. At first China would only trade silk with the emperor but the caravans that would be used to transport the silk would often get attacked and the material stolen. To remedy this the Chinese decided to expand their trade and thus the Silk Road was born. Another thing the Chinese would trade was salt. Salt was a well used product and therefore a very valued item. Because of this the Chinese started a salt business and sent individuals who were usually slaves to go dig holes in the dirt to find salt. One of the most famous things they traded was tea. They not only used it for drinking but also pressed it into a cakelike brick which was then ground into stone mortar. It could be enjoyed just as a drink or as a form of medicine. The origin of tea is supposed to be traced back the an emperor of China named Shennong who was drinking a cup of hot water when some leaves overhead fell into his cup and instead of taking them out he had a sip and thoroughly enjoyed the taste. Economy During the Qin Dynasty the economy was slightly different from other dynasties however. After many years of war there were higher taxes and intensive corvée labour that was required from the lower class or peasants that prevented the national economy from declining. The Qin’s economic policy was like a wartime economy that kept going on even after the wars during peace time. Economy Ancient Chinese religion continuously changed throughout the dynasties with new ideas and new schools of thought popping up every so often. Some of the big religions that we see most often during the years are Chinese folk religion, Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism.Chinese folk religion is based on Chinese mythology and the worship of shens (spirits) who can be nature gods, city gods, national gods, cultural heroes, dragons, and ancestors. Chinese folk religion contains aspects like animism (which means all objects including animals, plants, mountains, rivers etc. have a spiritual essence), and shamanism (which means a person who through meditation can connect with the spirit world).In this religion they believed that they could contact and communicate with their ancestors, their life energy or Qi, the Sun, the Moon, the Earth, Heaven, stars, animals and so on through various practices like prayer and meditation. They also believed in many superstitions and Feng shui (which is telling the future through the placement of things on the Earth). Religion Confucianism is essentially a way of life or a system of morals based on the teachings of a philosopher then he was ridiculed. Confucianism talked about honoring ones ancestors and what is essentially the Golden Rule (do unto other as you would have them do unto you). He also spoke about integrity and civility and the importance of both of these traits. He did not however talk much about what happens after death and he neither confirmed nor denied the existence of Heaven he thought of it more as a positive and personal force. Confucianism was not influential until about the 2nd century BCE when it was then recognized as the Han state cult and that is when elements of a religious and sacrificial nature were introduced to the idea of Confucianism and the Confucianism texts the Five Classics became the center of education. Confucianism has a strong influence over the morals of Chinese citizens that has lasted centuries is even still prevalent today. Buddhism was a religion that came from India stemming from the Buddha or “Enlightened One” and found its way into China through the Silk Road. Once there it was soon changed a little and became a new branch of Buddhism called Zen Buddhism. The idea of Zen Buddhism was that people should learn from experience not from facts or having people explain ideas to them ex. the best way to appreciate a flower was not to study about flowers but to look at one or another example is: the way to figure out why you should meditate is to actually meditate. So it was more about doing than seeing, actions not words. The Zen philosophy emphasized meditation instead of lengthy explanations. Religion Religion Religion Taoism is based on the teachings of the ancient book the Tao-te Ching written by Lao Tzu and it almost matches the teachings of Confucius. Taoism stresses spiritual harmony within an individual and that there are two sides to everything that is alive the yin and the yang. The yin or dark side symbolized women, the moon, completion, things that are still, and death while the yang or light side symbolized men, the sun, things that move ex. rivers and dragons, creation and life. It is stated that everyone has both yin and yang in them and it is important to keep the in balance. It has been said that doctors thought that illnesses were caused by having too much yin or yang. They thought that wars and killing was terrible since all things had life force in them and when a war was over people should be sad and not celebrate. Another thing that was emphasized was that the way to happiness was to go with the flow and let nature take its course; this was called “wu-wei” or “doing by not doing”. Religion That is not to say however that those were the only three Ancient Chinese religions. During the Qin Dynasty for example the common religion was focused on the shen (which meant spirits), the yin (which meant shadows), and the realms these two things were said to live in. In this religion the Chinese would make sacrifices so that they could contact this other world and receive blessings. The other realm was supposed to be parallel to this one and when someone would die they were supposed to have just moved over in the next world. To ensure that the dead would go there and stay there they would again make sacrifices. During the sacrifices the participant’s senses were dulled with mass amounts of smoke, incense, and music. They would also use this tactic with people who would be the intermediaries between the spirit world and this one. In Northern China wheat and millet were grown, and they used oxen to pull their plows. Common foods for the north included steamed buns, noodles or pancakes wit soybean products for protein. Sometimes there was fish or meat. Every meal was accompanied by fan and Cai. Fan refers to cooked grain, while Cai means vegtables. The rich in China has more meat (like bear paws and shark fins), eggs and fish, and were able to cook in more elaborate ways such as by steaming or stir-frying. Regardless of class, Chinese citizens had two meals a day. One was at mid morning and other was before nightfall. Before the Han Dynasty introduced tea to the nation, the people of China usually drank warm rice beer. Food The Xia Dynasty is China's first dynasty, which lasted over 500 years. 17 emperors reigned over this period. Legend says that the Xia dynasty was founded by Yu the Great, who was born in 2059 and a descendant of the Yellow Emperor. Yu is a semi-mythical figure who spent 13 years stopping the great flood and brought irrigation to the Yellow River Valley. He was said to have been born from a dragon, and became god of the soil.
The Xia dynasty was the first to irrigate, produce and use bronze and have a strong army. The Xia Dynasty used oracle bones and had a calendar. King Yu was the first king to be succeeded by his son instead of a man chosen for his virtue. This made the Xia the first Chinese dynasty. The Shang Dynasty reigned for about 700 years. Tang the Great founded the dynasty and King Zhou was its last emperor. Evidence has proven that the Shang Dynasty had created the earliest glazed pottery, had a potter's wheel, industrialized bronze casting used for rituals, wine, and food, as well as weapons and tools. They made advancements in jade carvings, figured out that the year was 365 1/4 days, and made reports on diseases. They are the first dynasty to introduce Chinese script. Remains of pottery and art among other things have been found of palace foundations, burials, and rammed earth fortifications. The Zhou or Chou Dynasty reigned for over 800 years. The Zhou Dynasty had administrative bureaucracy and developed a middle class. Iron was introduced and materials made from iron were becoming popular. The religion of Confucianism was developed. The famous Art of War by Sun Tzu was written in about 500 B.C. The Western Han Dynasty is the first part of the Han dynasty, separated by the Xin Dynasty. Emperor Gao maintained the centralized government of his predecessors, and started a bureaucracy which was based on intelligence rather than birth. Emperor Wu established the Silk Road, which was the path upon which silk and spices were traded from China to the Mediterranean. Tang Dynasty ruled imperial China for 289 years. The Tang Dynasty is considered a golden period in Chinese history. Because of the political stability, culture and the arts were developed. The Tang Dynasty also re-established trade along the Silk Road after the disuse of previous rulers. After the fall of the Tang, China descended into the Five Dynasties, a chaotic period, and then the Ten Kingdoms Period which went from 907-960 CE. Clothing of the Qin Dynasty was greatly influenced by the Emperor Qin, who believed very strongly in the concept of Yin and Yang as well as the theory of the Four Elements. The favourite colour of the Qin dynasty was black, since it was associated with water, which was the element of the Qin Dynasty. Accents and detailing could be done in different colours but the primary colour for the upper class was black to symbolize power, while lower classes were dressed in robes of white or yellow. Different adornments were reserved for stature in society. Though an emperor would wear jade accessories, a minister could only wear bronze, and so on. There were two types of robes, the first with a diagonal opening and the second with a straight opening down the front. These robes were long and loose and a popular style. Clothing Clothing Armour for all soldiers in the Qin Dynasty all had the following: armour shards on chest, upper shard partially covered the lower one; as to all armor shards on belly, lower shard partially covered the upper one. This was to accommodate the movements of soldiers. There were 6 nails (a lucky number) on every shard. The front and back armors had the same length and the lower hem was generally circular. Meng Jiangnu Despite his quest for immortality, Qin Shi Huang died at the age of 39. He was put in a tomb that had been built and constantly improved upon since the emperor first came to rule. The tomb plus the pits where the Terracotta warriors were built equals to the world's largest tomb, covering 22 square miles. According to a 1st century BCE historian from Ming-era records, the tomb itself contains a throne room, a copper dome, models of pavilions and palaces filled with gold, gemstones, sacred stone tablets, copper coffins, inscribed soul towers, prayer temples, a map of China, and models of Yangtze and Yellow rivers filled with flowing mercury.The Emperor is said to have been dressed in jade and gold with pearls in his mouth, with his coffin floating on mercury. Placed around the Emperor's body were vessels with precious stones and relics. The floor was inlaid with gold and silver ducks. The ceiling of the copper dome featured a starry sky of pearls and gems, and constellations made from candles made of whale oil, which burn longer than normal wax. The entire sanctuary has a circumference of nearly two miles.
Requests to excavate this tomb have been denied numerous times by the Chinese government. Archeologists are also apprehensive about excavating this tomb because of the high levels of mercury contamination in the soil. In the Qin Dynasty, there was a girl named Meng Jiangnu who married Fan Qiliang. Three days into their marriage, military officials suddenly broke in their house and took Fan Qiliang away to build the Great Wall in the north of China. Meng Jiangnu missed her husband dearly and cried nearly every day. One day she decided to look for him. She climbed over mountains and went through the rivers. She walked day and night, slipping and falling many times, but she finally reached the foot of the Great Wall. When she began to ask about her husband, she received bad news. Fan Qiliang had already died of exhaustion and had been buried into the Great Wall. Meng Jiangnu could not help crying. She sat on the ground and wailed. Suddenly with a tremendous noise, a 400 kilometer-long part of the Great Wall collapsed over her bitter wail, and everyone was astonished. The emperor was enraged at this setback and called her to punish her. However, at the first sight of Meng Jiangnu Emperor Qin Shihuang fell in love with her. Instead of killing her, he asked for her hand in marriage. Meng Jiangnu agreed upon the following three terms: find the body of Fan Qiliang, hold a state funeral for him, and have the emperor attend the funeral in person. All these terms were met and the marriage between the emperor and Meng Jiangnu was set. Rather than marry the emperor, the heartbroken girl jumped into the nearby Bohai Sea, killing herself. This story tells of the hard work of Chinese commoners and exposes the cruel system of hard labor. In memory of Meng Jiangnu a temple was built called the Temple of Mengjiangnu, at the foot of the Great Wall. A statue of her is also there in her memory. Ancient Chinese Creation Myth At the beginning of time, the universe was contained within an egg which had a yin and yang force. Pan Gu, the god of creation, was formed from these forces and slept for 18 000 years. When he woke up from his sleep, he stretched and broke the egg. The heavier elements from the egg sank down to form the earth, and the lighter materials floated up to make the sky. Pan Gu was scared that the earth and sky would meet again, so he pushed the sky higher and higher as he grew for the next 18 000 years. Once satisfied that the sky was high enough, he was so exhausted that he lay down to rest. He was so tired that he died. Pan Gu's torso and limbs became the mountains of earth. His eyes became the sun and moon, his flesh became the land, his hair became the trees and plants, and his tears became the rivers and seas. His breath became the wind, and his voice became thunder and lightning. Finally, the fleas and bacteria from Pan Gu became humankind. Ancient Chinese Creation Myth An alternate story explaining how humans came to be on the earth is through the goddess Nu Wa. One version of the myth says that she populated the earth with her brother Fu Xi. They lit two bonfires and said that if the smoke mingled, then they were to be married and if it did not, marriage was not an option. The smoke mingled, and so Nu Wa and her brother were wed and had children.
The second version says that Nu Wa was lonely all by herself on the earth so she molded some mud into a human shape and when she placed the clay figure onto the ground, it became alive! She created many of these clay figures. But soon, Nu Wa became tired of having to create new figures every time the present ones died. She decided to make them repopulate themselves. So she blew a breath of yang into some of the humans so that they became men and a breath of yin into others so that they turned into women. From then on, humanity was able to reproduce! Inventions The compass was first invented during the Qin Dynasty. Fortune tellers when making their divination boards would use lodestones, which was a mineral made of iron oxide that aligns itself in a north-south direction. Over time someone noticed that the lodestones would point out real directions and thus the compass was made. The first compasses were on square slabs which had markings for constellations and for the cardinal points. The pointing needle was a spoon-shaped pice of lodestone that would always point south. Inventions Around 450 BCE Chinese blacksmiths invented the crossbow. The crossbow had and iron catch so you could draw the bow and be ready to shoot then hook it under the catch stopping the bow for however long then shoot it by releasing the catch. This was a very handy innovation which was completely new technology that invading forces didn’t have or know about until 50 CE. Inventions Paper was invented around 100 BCE and a government official by the name of Ts’ai Lun soon after started a paper making industry. The paper was made by mixing thinly chopped mulberry bark and hemp rags with water pressing it flat and then letting it dry in the sun. It is said that this formula might have been modeled after bark cloth which was also made from mulberry bark and very common in China. The paper was used everywhere in China and contributed to the rise in popularity of books and reading. Inventions Chinese scientist made gunpowder by mixing together sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate. The sulfur was mined out of the ground, charcoal, and potassium nitrate was found in decaying animal manure. The powders where mixed together with the ratio 15 parts potassium nitrate to three parts charcoal and to two parts sulfur. The idea for gunpowder came about slowly with a man named Wei Boyang writing about a mixture that when lit would “fly and dance” violently. Many years later a Qin Dynasty scientist had written down the correct ingredients for gunpowder for certain and then had documented the explosion. Architecture The Great Wall of China is a sequence of fortifications that are made of brick, stone, tamped earth, wood, and any other strong materials. The Wall was first built when Emperor Qin Shi Huang wanted to protect his newly unified empire from potential threats from the north. There were already bits of fortification already along Chinas northern frontier and so he wanted to connect them. It would be very difficult transporting the necessary materials so the builder used local resources and so over mountain ranges they used rocks and in over the plains they used rammed earth (a mixture of chalk, lime, and gravel). Most of the Ancient Walls have been eroded over time so it is insure how extensive the walls originally were. There were no records documenting the construction but it is thought that thousands upon thousands of workers died building the wall in the Qin Dynasty. Xianyang the capitol during those times was an astonishing tribute to Chinese architecture. A well developed road network stems from there to make trade and travel easier and Qin Shi Huang enforced a series of policies to enhance the country and show off his political achievements. Skilled craftsman came and built many palaces as well as expanding the emperors own.
The definitive aspects of Qin Dynasty architecture was that city walls were made longer and sometimes secondary walls were added to separate districts. Structures were all very versatile to create a sense of authority and power as well as high towers, terraces, high buildings, and pillar gates also gave this impression. Architecture Medicine Early medicine in Ancient China suggests chanting spells, herbal medicines, lancing, and cauterization for ailments such as warts, snake bites, and possession (what was most likely mental illness). Later on China became a center of medical research with some of the world’s best doctors. The doctors got together and wrote the Neijing a book of medicine explaining their practices. It states that demons are not to blame for illness like previously thought but an imbalance of the yin and the yang in a person. To remedy this doctors used acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicines, and exercises. Things like bad food, not exercising, stress, and environment were said to be the cause of imbalanced yin and yang. Chinese doctors made many medicines prepared from different tree barks and while some of the time they just guessed other times the medicines worked well for example Ge Hong a doctor from the 300’s CE was the very first doctor to create a suitable remedy for malaria.
During the Qin Dynasty because of the book burnings very little progress was made in the field of medicine. Music In Chinese tradition Lin Lun is credited with inventing the earliest musical instruments in China in 1000 BCE. They were bamboo pipes that imitated the sounds of birds. However people were most likely playing drums and pipes long before that. Eventually Confucius stated that music should be calming and help people think which most composers agreed with and that became a popular style. Many years later the Chinese emperors established an Imperial Music Bureau that supervised all music during the early Qin Dynasty as well as invented the qin a musical instrument. Shortly thereafter however music was declared a wasteful pastime and most music books and instruments were burned in the book burnings the Emperor had ordered. The Imperial Music Bureau was then told to work on court music and military music in the Han Dynasty and to look out for political protest music. That eventually stopped and in the Tang Dynasty many new songs were written on the qin. QUESTIONS Emperor Shi Qin Huang has asked you to find him the elixir of life. What do you do? Literature People began writing in China at around 1500 BCE on animal bones or “oracle” bones (because priests used to use them to tell the future). They used to use pictures or symbols to represent things just like in hieroglyphs or cuneiform. People then moved on to writing on strips of wood or bamboo and then onto strips of silk which was very expensive so not many people wrote. Eventually the Ancient Chinese invented paper to write on and that was much more accessible than silk so more individuals started writing and copying books. The Chinese then invented various methods of printing books that made books cheaper and much more popular. Those methods were wood-block printing where someone would carve wood blocks with the information ink them and press them to a piece of paper and the movable clay type method where they would carve each Chinese character onto a block of clay, ink them and press them down on the paper in the desired order. All of this caused books to be more readily available which in turn caused more people to start learning to read and write more. Literature There are many well known Ancient Chinese books that we still have copies of today like The Art of War which was a book written by a general named Sun Tzu about the best way to win wars. It stated that a war like in business or politics is one side against another and if you make a plan and stick to that plan you will lose because inevitably your plan will be messed up by the other side’s plan. You were supposed to use a more general strategy instead so you could respond to different situations quickly. Here are some quotes from The Art of War: All warfare is based on lies and tricks; if you know both yourself and the enemy you can win a thousand battles without a single loss. Another famous Ancient Chinese literature piece is the poem The Song of Everlasting Sorrow written by Bai Juyi it is about an emperor who falls in love with a girl. Eventually his army feels that her family is gaining too much power because of her affiliation with the emperor so they kill her. The emperor gives up his throne to his son and the poem talks about his sorrow after she died. One of the most famous novels is The Romance of the Three Kingdoms it was a collection of folk tales similar to The Odyssey or The Iliad. Science & Mathematics The Chinese invented many things and made many contributions to the field of science. In early China they were mainly focused on engineering and theoretical ideas of how the world worked but they eventually grew to be more interested in inventions. The Ancient Chinese invented the crossbow, paper, the magnetic compass, gunpowder, a seismograph, and the early hot air balloon to name a few. They also made observations of both plants and animals and because of this they were able to discover the very first effective treatment for malaria in around 300 CE. They also observed the sky and made many charts on the stars and planets they saw. Many detailed drawings of animals, flowers, star charts, and other planets were found by archaeologists and show their interest. They also had many innovations in the field of mathematics. Chinese mathematics was very concise and motivated by problems of the calendar, trade, architecture, government taxes and taxes. To solve some of these problems they created counting boards and a decimal place value system. The counting boards have been found elsewhere but they appear to have been used for games instead of mathematical calculations. The counting board was the like the grandfather of the abacus which they started using by around 190 CE but it is unsure whether the abacus was invented in China or West Asia. The Chinese counted in bases of 10 so for example they would write the number 265 like this 2 times the symbol for hundred plus 6 times the symbol for 10 plus 5. People in India counted like this but the Chinese way was more efficient as India counted in bases of 60. The most famous mathematics book from Ancient China is Jiuzhang suanshu or the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art and it is a compilation of many mathematical advances. "Hanfu" Role of Women Like practicallty every other ancient civilization, Ancient Chinese women were second to men for most of their lives. She was first under the care of her father, then she answered to her husband. A woman’s duty was to look after her husband, sons and the other men in her life. Her ultimate duty was to have a son. Women were, however respected by their children because a woman's role as mother was very important. The older she got, the more respect she got, especially if she lived longer than her husband. Role of Women Throughout Ancient China, marriage was an arranged affair that was seen as almost a transaction where both families would benefit. The two families would settle on a dowry for the wife, and her family essentially would not have to provide for her anymore. The father of the bride had the last say in who his daughter married, regardless of whether she was a peasant or a noble.
Women could also be sold by their male relatives in desperate conditions, though it almost always only occured within the lower class. If there had been a bad harvest, a family could sell the daughter to get through the winter. If a family had many daughters, the father could sell the last unmarried one because dowries were expensive. Women who were sold ended up more often than not in brothels. Emperors & Government Laws These were the most common and basic laws throughout Ancient Chinese history:
1. Every man should most carefully carry out all the duties required by filial piety (respect for parents) and in accordance with the deference (obedience) owed by the younger brother to the elder ...
2. One should always hold the family ancestors in the greatest respect ...
3. Quarrels and legal actions should be avoided as far as possible.
4. Care should be given to the efficient running of the public schools
5. The people should often be reminded of the penal laws ...
6. Outbursts of anger should be kept under control to avoid greater dangers ensuing and wet spring and summers.
This lush area was enclosed with deserts, mountains and steppes (un-forested grassland), and gave China the feeling that they were "All Under Heaven" and surrounded by barbarians. Science & Mathematics Thoughts on the book burning and general ban on knowledge? Can you find any similarities between the Qin Dynasty and how it was governed, and any other time periods in history you've studied? Why do you think Emperor Qin Shi Huang was so against every other type of religion? Do you believe that a mental disorder is caused (partially) by an imbalance of Yin and Yang in a person? What would the impact of suppressed artistic ability have on the people? Name a few things the Ancient Chinese people invented. Thank you for listening!!!
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