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Understanding Intercultural Transitions
Transcript of Understanding Intercultural Transitions
short-term refugees Article "As individuals encounter new cultural contexts, they have to adapt to some extent." (Martin & Nakayama, 2013, p.330) Interpretive Approach Critical Approach Institutional, Political, and Class Influences help facilitate or difficult adaptation.
discrimination Cultural Adaptation:
A process by which individuals learn the rules and customs of new contexts Three models to adaptation Anxiety and Uncertainty management model Integrative Model Transition Model Uncertainty reduction
explanatory uncertainty Must be open to information and recognize alternative ways to interpret the information. Social Science Approach Three Models to Adaptation U-curve model Phenomenological model W-curve model U-curve theory:
A theory of cultural adaption of positing that migrants go through fairly predictable phases (excitement/anticipation, shock/disorientation, adjustment) in adapting to a new cultural situation. Three phases:
2. Culture Shock
3. Adjustment Identity and Adaptation
How much do immigrants want to maintain their identity?
How many day-to-day encounters with others?
ownership of political power Living on the Border (liminality)
frequent trips between countries (physically or psychologically) Separation Segregation Integration Assimilation Giving up one's cultural heritage to adopt the mainstream culture Individuals maintain their culture and interact daily with other groups Interest in maintaining ones own culture (speaking ones language at home)
Celebrating holidays not typically celebrated in the U.S
Participating in host (American) culture.
ex: Music, food, fashion Cultural Hybridity combining all four different modes of relating to host society desire to: assimilate economically- Via employment
integrate linguistically- bilingualism, trilingualism (ALL numberisms)
social separation Free choice to assimilate: archetypal "melting pot"
Forced assimilation: "pressure cooker" According to a recent study, the more ethnic or racial discrimination at work, public settings, housing and with the police decreases the importance one feels in retaining their cultural heritage. Retaining one's culture while keeping interactions with other cultures at a minimum Choice is made by the one's group and is accepted or respected by the dominant group Separation initiated and enforced by the dominant group Examples:
Legislation passed that prevents people from an ethnic group from living there
Native American reservations, designated areas of land away from U.S. society
Jewish ghettos in Europe
Jews and Arabs in Israel (2010) segregates many things; lifestyle to political parties. http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy2.lib.depaul.edu/ehost/detail?vid=3&sid=51c1b5b8-f7a6-4269-b2b4-36ca76cbfd80%40sessionmgr115&hid=121&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#db=ofs&AN=15421672 The Challenges of Worldwide Migration An article from the Journal of International Affairs By Michael Doyle
2004 In 2000, an estimated 175 million people lived outside their birthplace, more than ever before Of these, about 158 million were deemed international migrants Approximately 16 million were recognized refugees fleeing a well-founded fear of persecution 900,000 were asylum seekers Because of the growth of international migration, there is a need for international cooperation to maintain national interests With all of our present day technology, travel is simple making migration common Prevalent migration patterns are becoming a large international issue for many reasons Migrants are looking for an institution to advocate their rights The advocates and laws in place for these immigrants are incomplete and insufficient These large migration patterns will continue to grow and exceed what we have ever seen before. Doyle explains it is in our best interest to get on board. Thinking Dialectically About Intercultural Transition
Privilege- Disadvantage Dialectic
shapes the intercultural migrant's identity and the changes
Personal- Contextual Dialectic
balance between the individual and contextual demand Culture shock and adaptation Transition shock loss and gain flight approach
flex approach "Adaptation occurs through communication. That is, the migrant communicates with individuals in the new environment and gradually develops new ways of thinking and behaving." (Martin & Nakayama, 2013, p.325) social support: Ties with other people that play a significant part in mediating psychological health over time. outcomes of adaptation psychological health
intercultural identity W-curve theory:
A theory of cultural adaptation
that suggests that
another U curve upon
returning home. Two differences from 1st and 2nd U-curve:
2. changed Phenomenological model:
approach that seeks in depth
human experiences. 1. taking things for granted
2. making sense of new patterns
3. coming to understand new information. *Adaptation depends on context *focus on in-depth descriptions of the adaptation process *focus on individual transition shock:
culture shock and adaptation flight approach fight approach flex approach A strategy to cope with a new situation, being hesitant or withdrawn from the new environment. A trial-and-error approach to coping with a new situation. A combination of flight and fight. "Going with the flow" but also keeping context in mind. Adjustment
occurs through communication Those who communicate more adapt better, but experience more culture shock. Social Support
Both from home culture and host culture. We don't like the "Melting Pot" society prefer the "Salad" society