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Baroque Era

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Nicole Kemper

on 24 May 2014

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Transcript of Baroque Era

Characteristics, Style and Form of Baroque Visual Arts
Baroque Era
Baroque drama was most popular in England, France and Spain.
Drama during this time was very realistic and had many real life scenarios.
The plays during he Baroque era were heavily influenced by religion, as were art, music and dance.
Plays of the Baroque time period contained three acts: the set-up, the conflict and the resolution.
There were elements of comedy and tragedy that played as the main themes throughout them.
The dramas of were about jealousy, love, and dignity.
In most of the plays there was a lady, a fool, and an aggressor.
The plays incorporated the architecture of the theater, the paintings of the sets, and the musical aspects of opera, creating a multimedia experience.

Characteristics, Style and Form of Baroque Dance
Function and Role that Baroque dance Played
In the beginning of early Baroque Courts, dance was more of a hobby or pleasurable activity .
The highest status for a dancer or musician was that of the amateurs (derived from amas, to love) — those who loved their art for the purest reasons, as opposed to paid technicians.
The amateurs were indeed the finest dancers and musicians in the early Baroque courts
Balls would feature elaborate entertainments created and performed by fellow members of the aristocracy.
King Louis XIV formed the Academie Royale de Danse in 1661 for the creation, refinement and standardization of the new style of dance.This turned dance more into a form of study.
It was believed that the Academie Royale de Danse was to be very precise so that people would have to come to advance in their skill


Important People
•Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. He was named Louis Dieudonné (Louis the God-given)
King Louis XIV was the founder of the Baroque dance style
• He reigned from May 14th 1643 - September 1st 1715
King Louis XIV of France was an enthusiastic dancer and had a great influence on the development of a new form of dance.
He was known as "The Sun King" because of a ballet role he performed at the age of 14, where he represented the rising sun.
He also performed 80 roles in 40 major ballets
• During his reign , two kinds of dance were developed
- social dances for the ballroom
- theatrical dances for court entertainments
• King Louis XIV formed the Academie Royale de Danse in 1661 for the study of the new style of dance


Introduction
The Baroque era is sometimes divided into roughly three phases:
- Early Baroque, c.1590–c.1625
- High Baroque, c.1625–c.1660
- Late Baroque, c.1660–c.1725

In informal usage, the word "baroque" describes something that is elaborate, or highly detailed. It was used to mock the era by historians. The Baroque era was also very dramatic, so art forms were represented as more striking and sudden.
The Catholic church encouraged the fame and popularity of the Baroque style and had decided at the Council of Trent that the arts should communicate religious themes and direct emotional involvement in response to the Catholic Reformation.
The most important factors during the Baroque era were the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation; the development of the Baroque style was considered to be closely linked with the Catholic Church.

Characteristics, Style and Form of Baroque Visual Arts
Baroque visual art is characterized by its intense emotion, movement, and rich detail.
Unlike art of the Renaissance, Baroque artists strove to make art pieces full of motion and come to life.
Baroque sculptors aimed to fill their statues with movement and emotion.
Architecture in churches and palaces were heavily detailed with dramatic lighting (created using windows), colour (ceiling painting) and a central projection that is usually quite large and pointing outwards.
Paintings and sculptures often showed a suspended movement inviting the viewer to see the scene happening in their mind.
Artists shared the interest of heightening the senses of the viewer which aimed at the emotional and individual response from the viewer towards the art piece.
Artists used techniques to engage emotions by making large scale, luscious works of art using dramatic lighting and seductive images depicting life-size subjects so that the viewer can feel immersed into the scene.
Examples
Important Artists/ Works
Important People and Works of Art
Poetry had a large influence on drama during this era. The two most influential poets of the Baroque era were: Miguel de Cerventes and Francisco de Quevedo.
The most important playwright from France during the Baroque era was Jean Racine who dominated French theaters with his tragedies. Some of is his tragedies include Athalie and Phèdre
One of the most known people in the field of drama from Spain was novelist, poet and playwright Lope de Vega.
The most important playwright from England, and arguably the most important and well known figure of drama from the Baroque era, and all of drama, was William Shakespeare. He was most renowned for the plays Twelfth Night, Macbeth and many more.
What role did it play in society? What was it's purpose? Who was it for?
In the baroque era, the arts were very exaggerated, so the instruments used were very dramatically.
This style of music was approved by the church.
Examples:
Function and Role of Visual Arts.
Conclusion
Overall during the Baroque Era, the arts reflected society as well as society reflected and influenced the arts. We see the influence of the arts on the way people dressed, acted, looked on life and how society looked at the time both physically (architecture) and socially. Though the arts are all about expression and emotion, during this era they were used more for show of social status and ranking because of their inaccessibility to everyone. The name of the Era is quite self-explanatory showing that this era was all about precision and detail. These characteristics show throughout all art forms and even through society. All of the arts intertwine and affect each other. They grow, and change together as society changes.
Drama
Music
Visual Arts
Dance
How could we recognize music from the baroque era?

The baroque era used instruments such as: the harpsichord, clavichord, String instruments (Ex: Violin), piano, organ, woodwinds and brass instruments (Ex: Trumpet).
The only time baroque music included vocals, were in operas
. Composers also began to be more precise about how the music was performed and the details, often specifying the instruments on which a piece should be played instead of allowing the performer to choose.
Since this era was dramatic and precise, many pieces were given directions to drastically change the dynamics and speed during the song
1. Antonio Vivaldi- Four Seasons (spring)
2. Georg Phillipp Telemann- Wassermusik
1
2
The Purpose of Baroque music was for it to be a source of entertainment for the citizens
It was also a outlet for emotions for the composers/musicians
Baroque music was important to society as this time because started to become popular and encouraged by churches, so more musicians played at church, which attracted others to come to church
Baroque music brought communities together, in music related places such as operas and churches
Politics/ Economy
What was the Role Art in Society?
The arts were an activity or opportunity for only for people that were ranked high in society as they were seen as privileges. This also shows the classes of society and their different opportunities.
Who were the arts for?
The arts were a privilege to practice and to witness.
Only those who were wealthy and had lots of time could participate. Usually it was nobility and the rest of the aristocracy.
Many of them were patrons (people who paid artists to make works for events or occassions).
Songs at this time were approved by the church, therefore some songs were written to be played at church
Clothing/ Style
Fashion in the period 1600-1650 is known for the loss of the ruff and linen collars, while waistlines for both men and women rose.
The profile, which was close to the body with tight sleeves and a low, pointy waist untill 1615, slowly widened.
Sleeves became very full, and in the 1620s and 1630s and were slit, to show the thick sleeves of the shirt beneath.
Other fashion trends included tall or wide hats with brims for men.
Social Conditions
During the Baroque period, social classes were very prominent, and defined who you were. The Baroque Period was also known to some as the 'age of absolutism' because many rulers of the time exercised absolute power over their subjects. Unjustly, the Duke of Weimar in Germany, for example, would easily have been able to throw his court musician, Bach, into jail simply because he wished to leave his job. Those belonging to the lower or even middle classes, would more than likely not have had the opportunity to hear some of the wonderful compositions of their time, due to the unfair ruling, and exclusion of them. The aristocracy was incredibly wealthy and powerful during this time, and whilst most of the population was barely surviving, the European rulers treated themselves with many luxuries. Balls, plays, banquets, operas and ballets were thrown regularly, as a way of showing off their power and wealth. This is the main reason why so many of the people of the Baroque period were unable to experience the wonders of music, only the higher classes could afford it, or were invited to it.
During the Baroque Era the main type of government was the Monarchy.
Monarchy: a form of government with a monarch at the head.
Due to this their were very harsh social classifications.
At this time, the church was put above everyone else, and they did not make money, so the economy was maintained by trade, commerce and the industry.

Who were the important composers/musicians and peice at this time?
Antonio Vivaldi
He was born in Venice on March 4th, 1678.
He became a priest, but left because of "the tightness of the chest"
He was the composer of many but the most famous was the four seasons, which was loved especially by King Louis XIV and was played frequently, such a plays and in public places
King Louis XIV
1. The four seasons (spring) is an example of dramatic music in the Baroque era. It was named one of the boldest music in France, at this time. King Louis XIV loved The four season, especially 'spring'. This is also an example of how popular instruments such as Violin, Violas, cellos, harpsichord are used.




The Function and Role of Drama in the Baroque Era
Drama was created for the public and was open to all for a pay.
Since you had to pay to get in, it was mainly for the middle class and the wealthy.
The more expensive seats (on the stage and up in the balconies) were reserved for the wealthy and for important figures like the Queen.
Women were not always welcome to attend plays during this time, but when they did attend they had to be covered by veils.
Only males were allowed to be play writers or act. Since women could not act, young boys had to play the female roles in plays.
The plays were created to entertain audiences.
Drama played a large role in society since it was one of the main sources of entertainment for the majority of Europe.
The Theaters:
During this era the technologies that allowed for set changes and props or actors to be hung from, the ceiling were invented.
- These technologies are still in place today on Broadway.
The most expensive seats were directly on stage and in the balconies. The cheapest seats for spectators was in a standing area just bellow the stage.
The Theaters were generally large buildings elaborate designs and paintings on the walls and ceilings.
2. Wassermusik uses instruments popular in this time such as the trumpet, the violin, the cello, etc
.When the music was notated, it used many different types of dynamic and techniques that must be played properly to portray the music
for it to be as dramatic as the
composer intended.

Peter Paul Rubens
Diego Velázquez
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Baroque dance developed into two kinds:
Theatrical
Courts/Balls
Both were very similar in steps and styles
Both were performed by royalty
Some of the dances were menuet, sarabande, bourée, gavotte, gigue, chaconne and the French courante
All of the dances shared roughly the same layout of steps,
Usually adjusted to fit the different beats of each dance type.
•The step layout was used in both social (ballroom) and theatrical dance
In fact, courtiers danced alongside professionals in court entertainments.

Minuet for Two Dancers
Sarabande à deux
La Bourée d`Achille
Baroque visual arts was cultivated and enjoyed by King Louis 15th in the renovated Place of Recoy in France.
Artists also composed/ constructed Baroque style art all over Europe during the time period.
In the Netherlands, a rise in the arts happened. This is often referred to as the Golden Period where Baroque style influenced the visual arts tremendously.
Baroque visual arts presented an unusual diversity mainly because influences of naturalism and classicism came together and created the typical, extravagant Baroque style.
Visual art was embraced by the Catholic Reformation which was when, during this time, the Catholic church re-evaluated their relationship with art because some people believed it violated the 10 Commandments.
They thought that paintings of (worship of idols other than God- ex: pics of Mary)


The Ecstasy of St. Theresa
Throne of St. Peter
The Exchange of Princesses
The Issue of Souls in Purgatory
Hippopotamus Hunt
Venus at a Mirror
Fashion in the period 1650-1700 known by quick change.
At the end of the Thirty Year War's, military uniforms influenced men's clothing, but then were replaced for a short period a zesty clothes
The wide, high-waisted figure of the previous period was replaced by a long, lean line with a low waist for both men and women.
Pope Innocent X
Las Meninas
1600
1650
1700
Georg Phillip Telemann
He was born March 14th, 1681
Telemann wrote nearly fifty concertos for various solo instruments.
His most well know piece is wassermusik (meaning
w water music), which was premiered and
requested by King George, and people
of high status.
Aristocracy Dancing
Musicians also wrote songs for Kings, Queens, or people with high status' and wrote/performed songs for them.
Antonio Vivaldi
Georg Philipp Telemann
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