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NANKING MASSACRE AFTERMATH AND REPERCUSSION
Transcript of NANKING MASSACRE AFTERMATH AND REPERCUSSION
Revisionist justified and altered certain points of the massacre in the history textbooks
The far end of the political spectrum, Japanese Ultranationalists have:
threatened everything from lawsuits to death
assassination to silence opponents who suggest that these textbooks are not telling the next generation the real story.
On December 13, 1937, Japanese troops began a war that rape and mass murdered. It lasted six weeks.
They murdered about a third of a million Chinese people in Nanking, (known as Nanjing today).
The Japanese Imperial Army captured Nanking and they ransacked city streets, randomly killing innocent Chinese men, women and children of all ages, for the 50,000 troops were given orders to kill all the captives.
It's hard to say who gave the order to "kill all captives." Some authors say that Prince Asaka allegedly issued the order, but other authors claim that lieutenant colonel Isamu Cho ( Asaka's aide-de-camp) issued the order of "killing all captives" without the Prince's knowledge or assent.
Japanese troops attacking Manchuria
The ceremonial entrance of the Japanese forces into the city of Nanking after the city fell to the Japanese on December 13, 1937.
American Christian reverend and he worked in Nanking as a missionary.
He filmed and took pictures of everything that happened in those six weeks. He shot several hundred minutes of film. The films recorded men being beheaded, women raped and babies stranded, surrounded by corpses. They are the earliest evidence of the massacre.
He published ten of the photos in Life magazine in 1938, and the world was in disbelief.
He is also known for saving thousands of lives by running through the streets and rescuing Chinese soldiers and civilians .
Japanese recruits at a bayonet drill practicing on Chinese prisoners.
For the next few years, China saw Japan consolidate its hold on their country, while they suffered civil war between communists and nationalists. Then in the summer of 1937, the Japanese managed to start a full scale war with the Chinese. They invaded Shanghai in August, and by mid- November, the Japanese had captured Shanghai and then moved to Nanking (known as Nanjing today). At noon on December ninth, the military dropped leaflets into the city, urging the surrender of Nanking within 24 hours. The Japanese troops awaited an answer but no response was received from the Chinese by the deadline on December tenth. After an hour of waiting, General Matsui gave the command to take Nanking by force.
Only a handful were punished for the event.
Japanese soldiers were tried and sentenced.
Tani Hisao, commander of the 6th Division, death sentence.
Six other "Class A" war criminals executed
30 key Japanese commanders were executed
Emperor Hirohito, Prince Asaka, and Japanese Imperial family received immunity
The International Military Tribunal of the Far East estimates more than 200,000 casualties in this incident, but China's official estimate is about 300,000 casualties based on the evaluation of the Nanking War Crimes Tribunal.
The Japanese government has admitted to the
acts of killing a large number of noncombatants, looting and other violence committed by the
Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of
Assault and Capture of Nanking
After receiving no response from the Chinese, the
SEF's 16th Division, the 6th Division, and the 9th Division advanced and attacked three gates on the eastern side, western walls, and the area in between. On December twelfth, while under artillery fire and aerial bombardment, the Chinese General ordered his men to retreat. The soldiers, in a desperate attempt to escape alive, ripped clothes off of civilians in an attempt to blend in and were shot and killed by their own supervisory unit. On December thirteenth, the Divisions of the Japanese Army entered the city, facing no military resistance and two small Japanese Navy fleets arrived on both sides of the Yangtze River.
The End of the Massacre
In late January 1938, the Japanese army forced all refugees
in the Safety None to return home, immediately claiming to
have restored order. After the establishment of the collaborating government, order was gradually restored in Nanking and atrocities by Japanese troops lessemed considerably. The last refugee camps were closed in May 1938.
May 1, 1946, Prince Asaka was interrogated by SCAP officials ( Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers ). Asaka
the existence of any massacre and claimed never to have received complaints about the conduct of his troops.
The Nanjing Memorial Hall
The Nanjing Memorial Hall was built in 1985 by the Nanjing Municipal Government in memory of the 300,000 victims who lost their lives during the massacre. The memorial exhibits historical records, uses architecture, sculptures, and videos to illustrate what happened during that time. It is located near a site where thousands of bodies were buried called the "pit of ten thousand corpses"
Aftermath & Repercussions
Aftermath to Survivors and Saviours
most survivors and saviors have passed away
"Just a part of war"
In September 1986, the Japanese education minister, Fujio Masayuki, referred to the Rape of Nanking as "just a part of war."
In 1988, a 30-second scene depicting the Rape of Nanking was removed from Bernardo Bertolucci's The Last Emperor by the film's Japanese distributor.
In 1991, censors at the Ministry of Education "ordered textbook authorities to eliminate all reference to the numbers of Chinese killed during the Rape of Nanking because authorities believed there was insufficient evidence to verify those numbers"
General Nagano Shigeto, a Second World War veteran appointed justice minister in Spring 1994, told a Japanese newspaper that "the Nanking Massacre and the rest was a fabrication."
American historian and journalist.
Author of "The Rape of Nanking"
Exposed Survivors Testimonies and Accounts of the Massacre
In-depth resources of the event
Intention of book: Nanking Massacre should never be forgotten
She committed suicide on November 9, 2004.
On August 15, 1995, the Japanese prime minister Murayama gave the first clear and formal apology for Japanese actions during the war, the aggression and the great suffering that it brought on Asia. The Emperor offered his condolences and expressed hope that such awful things would never occur again. A written apology from Japan was expected from China as opposed to the message to the international community.
The reparations to the people whose lives were destroyed in the rampage was
have either ignored the massacre at Nanking altogether or put a decidedly Japanese spin on the actions of the military.
In 1990 Ishihara Shintaro, a leading member of Japan's conservative Liberal Democratic Party and the author of best-selling books such as " The Japan That Can Say No," told a interviewer:
" People say that the Japanese made a holocaust there (in Nanking), but that is not true. It is a story made up by the Chinese. It has tarnished the image of Japan, it is a lie."
Ishihara responded to backlash to his remarks:
"The world never learned about the nanking massacre until the International Military Tribunal of the Far east put people on trial for their role in it; that neither Japanese war correspondents nor western reporters wrote about the massacre as it was occuring; that the
New York Times
correspondent Frank Tillman Durdrin failed to witness any massacre; and that the Episcopalian minister John Magee saw only one person killed."
, son, made an effort to disprove Ishihara's statement.
gave his interviews to the media and attended conferences on the Nanking massacre at which he read from his father's papers and displayed the actual camera his father used to film Japanese astrocities.
Frank Tillman Durdrin
took direct action.
stepping out of the retirement in san diego to hold a press conference to refute ishihara's remarks.
An article was written in 1937 that describe the countryside from shanghai to nanking as peaceful,
that this article was written
two months before
the Japanese started their advance on Nanking.
Ishihara went on the suggest:
Chinese claims of a massacre at Nanking helped influence the U.S. decision to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
"even if the Germans had apologized for killing the Jews, that did not mean that the Japanese should do the same; under
no circumstances should the japanese ever admit they were guilty of any wrongdoing
, prefectural director of Kempeitai ( the secret Japanese military police) during the war, rose after the war to become the Japanese minister of justice and even the minister of education.
"The white race made Asia into a colony, but only Japan has been blamed. Who was the aggressor country? It was the white race. I don't see why Japanese are called militarist and aggressors. I didn't say Japan wasn't an aggressor. I said it wasn't the only aggressor."
Okuno had been forced to resign, but he remained unrepentant to the end.
"No Intention of aggression"
, Japanese chief cabinet secretary, outraged several asian countries:
stated that sex slaves and rape victims of Japanese imperial army during WWII were not slaves at all but
willingly engaged in prostitution
In January 1997, he proclaimed that the comfort women of the Japanese army were no different from the Japanese prostitutes who were working legally in Japan at the time.
1977 minister of education reduced a section on World War II within a standard history book of several hundred pages to only six pages, which consisted mainly of pictures of the American firebombing of Tokyo, a picture of the ruins of Hiroshima, and a tally of Japan's war dead. The text neglected to mention the casualties on the other side, Japanese war atrocities, or the forced evacuations of Chinese and Korean prisoners to labor camps in Japan.
Ienaga Saburo, Japanese historian and history textbook writer, sued the japanese government
legal battle that spanned three decades
Ministry interfered with Ienaga's attempts to document the Nanking massacre for schoolchildren.
The textbook manuscript Ienaga wrote:
"Immediately after the occupation of Nanking, the Japanese Army killed numerous Chinese soldiers and citizens. This incident came to be known as the Nanking Massacre."
The examiner commented:
"Readers might interpret this description as meaning that the Japanese Army unilaterally massacred Chinese immediately after the occupation. This passage should be revised so that it is not interpreted in such a way."
"While battling the fierce resistance of the Chinese armed forces, the Japanese Army occupied Nanking and killed numerous Chinese soldiers and civilians. This incident came to be known as the Nanking Massacre."
The examiner demanded Ienaga to
his description of the Rape itself, claiming that
"The violation of women is something that has happened on every battlefield in every era of human history. This is not an issue that needs to be taken up with respect to the Japanese Army in particular."
Even the word " agression" was deemed taboo. "aggression," the censors wrote, " is a term that contains negative ethical connotations." The ministry of Education also bristled at Ienaga's efforts to condemn Japanese wartime behavior. It took offense at the following passage : "The war glorified as 'holy war' and the Japanese Army's defeat and their brutal acts on the battlefield were completely concealed. As a result, the majority of the Japanese people were not able to learn the truth and they were placed in a position where they had no choice but to cooperate enthusiastically in this reckless war." This ministry of Education deleted this passage on the grounds that the expressions " the Japanese Army's brutal acts" and " this reckless war" were "unilateral criticsm of Japan's position and actions" during World War II.
extremists fired off
to the plaintiff attorneys, the judge Sugimoto Ryokichi, and Ienaga himself, while thugs kept the scholar awake by banging pots and pans outside his home and screaming slogans.
Passage changed to:
Azuma Shiro :
soldier, openly admitted his participation in Japanese war crimes against the Chinese during the Second World War.
retired Japanese politician.
served four terms as mayor of Nagasaki from 1979 to 1995.
He has publicly made controversial statements about the responsibility of Japan and its then-reigning Emperor for World War II
survived a retaliatory assassination attempt in 1990.
Convicted Class-A war criminals enshrined at Yasukuni