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Biotechnology

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Jade Newsome

on 16 May 2015

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Transcript of Biotechnology

Biotechnology

Into the Future...
What is Biotechnology?
the use of living organisms and their biological processes "to develop technologies and products that help improve our lives and the health of our planet."
Building the foundation...
Modern Biotechnology

Golden Rice

Jade Newsome
University of Georgia

www.bio.org/articles/what-biotechnology
1863
1929
1973
1953
4000 BC
6000 BC
Gregor Mendel discovers hereditary transmission of genetic traits.
Penicillin produced by mold is discovered to have antibacterial properties.
Watson and Crick propose double-helix structure of DNA.
Cohen and Boyer perfect techniques to cut and paste DNA and to reproduce the new DNA in bacteria
Yeast microbes used to make beer and cheese by Sumerians and Babylonians
Egyptians used yeast microbes to make bread
Unleavened Bread
Leavened Bread
Engineered microbes used to help clean up an oil spill
The gene for human insulin was cloned into E.coli for pharmaceutical production.
1978
1986
Other products
Health & Medicine
Bt-Corn
http://www.ent.iastate.edu/imagegal/plantpath/corn/ecb/bteardam.html
Food Items
AquAdvantage Salmon
http://www.biofortified.org/2013/02/what-do-you-want-to-know-about-aquadvantage-salmon/
Provides high amounts of essential Vitamin A
Can help prevent blindness and death in people with Vitamin A-deficiency
Grows to market size in 1/2 time as traditional salmon
Increases profits for producers, decreases cost for consumers
Contains insect-killing gene from soil bacteria
Allows decreased use of dangerous pesticides
http://www.goldenrice.org/Content4-Info/info1_photos.php
Vaccines
Provide protection against many infectious diseases
Have virtually eliminated measles, mumps and polio in the United States
Xenotransplantation
18 people die each day waiting for an organ transplant
Allows production of organs for transplant patients without a donor
Anti-Malarial Mosquitos
Disease causes over 600,000 deaths each year
Contains genetic modification which prevents transmission of disease to humans
http://organdonor.gov/about/data.html
Biofuel
Fuel produced from sugars in plants and algae
Reduces harmful greenhouse gas emissions
Detergents
Contain stain-fighting enzymes
Enzymes produced by bacteria
GloFish (TM)
Glow-in-the-dark pet fish
Engineered with gene from zebrafish that causes fluorescence
What problems will Biotechnology help us solve?
Gene Therapy
Uses genetically engineered T-cells to specifically attack cancer cells
Great alternative treatment for cancers not susceptible to traditional methods
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/vaccine-decision/prevent-diseases.html
Cooking Oils
Engineered for better taste, cooking quality
Sold as cooking oil and used in making fried snacks
Full transcript