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Transcript of Thesis
This must be present in the middle management that serves as the direct link between the top management and its subordinates.
This study presents the effect of professional background on the managing capacity of subject coordinators.
Subject coordinators who primarily have no management educational background but serves as a middle manager were given surveys to assert their self-assessed managing capacity depending on satisfaction and perceived importance.
Calculated using the Spearman Rho and the Chi-Squared Test, the result shows that having a non-management educational background has no direct effect on one’s managing capacity. Good education has been a primary concern here in the Philippines. Changes, particularly improvements in the education systems, are beginning to be passed throughout the country.
In the global arena, the essence of “the people are our main assets” is felt which results to every organization’s focus on a highly competent workforce (Bush, 2007).
The competency of the whole organization relies or is affected by its managers. Statement of the Problem On education, the researchers seek to answer the following:
• What are the roles of a subject coordinator?
• What are the qualifications of a subject coordinator?
• Is a background on management one of the primary criteria in selecting a coordinator? Regarding management, the researchers seek to answer the following:
•How is a background on management relevant for subject coordinators?
•What are the means to improve a subject coordinator’s managing capacity? Hypothesis Null hypothesis: Professional background has no effect to the Managing Capacity of the Subject Coordinators
Alternative hypothesis: Professional background has an effect to the Managing Capacity of the Subject Coordinators Scope and Limitations This study is only concerned with the effects to the managing capacity of the selected UST coordinators through their professional background and self-assessment.
The study is limited to subject coordinators of eight (8) colleges or faculties in the University of Santo Tomas, which are divided into two (2) groups.
The colleges or faculties that represents the subject coordinators with management and non-management background. 1.Subject Coordinators
10.Self - Assessment Significance of the Study The researchers seek to identify the roles of the subject coordinators in terms of managing not only to the professors but also to their whole department.
The study aims to help every subject coordinator determine if a background in Management affects their capacity to manage
The trainings being offered by the university as well as those being offered outside will also be needed to identify if there is an effect with their managing capacity. Scientific Management Theory Scientific Management Theory focuses on the labor and management of the company, not on a particular one only. Behavioral Management Theory With Behavioral Management Theory, the affection of the management towards their employees is said to greatly affect the quality and quantity of their works. Quantitative Managament Theory This theory advocates the use of mathematical procedures to management problems, where it expresses mathematical models and measurable data. Social Management Theory Social Management Theory considers the management system as a system that is directly related to the cultural interrelationship. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory This theory provides two sets of factor, which either causes satisfaction or dissatisfaction to the employee. Study Framework Every educational institution, like any other business establishment, is comprised of an organizational structure, which primarily includes the top management, middle management, and their subordinates.
Middle management refers to subject coordinators while their subordinates are the professors of the said subject/area.
This paper focuses on subject coordinators, which may generally be classified as “Middle Managers” as per the definition classified by Floyd and Wooldridge that they connect and link up the top management with “operational workers” wherein they serve as “the coordinator between daily activities of the units and the strategic activities of the hierarchy” (Buss &Kuyvenhoven, 2011).
This idea supports the idea that every organizational structure upholds the importance of middle managers as they serve as “linking pins”, which first asserted by RensisLikert in 1967, wherein a subordinate of one is a superior of the other. Middle Managers and their Role The middle manager relays and implements the information and the orders of the top management. Managing Capacity as Transactional Leadership or Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership is based on the concept of exchange between leader and group members and has two (2) forms: (1) Contingent Reward; and (2) Management by Exception or MBE. Managerial Leadership and Management applied in Education Formal models assume that organizations are hierarchical systems in which manages use rational means to pursue agreed goals (Bush, 2003). Subject Coordinators as Managers exercising Educational Leadership Managers and leaders have always been interconnected in various researches in which for every manager, there is a subordinate whom he exercises leadership over to. Subject Coordinators as Middle Managers and Faculty Leaders The research report, Coalface subject coordinators – the missing link to building leadership capacities in the academic supply chain, focused on the role and leadership responsibilities of subject coordinators in higher education (Cohen et. al, 2010). Subject Coordinators’ roles reflect their Managing Capacity A research shows six (6) abilities that are important to a successful administration: (1) ability to plan and organize work, (2) ability to work with and lead others, (3) ability to analyze problems and make decisions, (4) ability to communicate orally and in written, (5) ability to perceive the needs of concern of others, and (6) the ability to perform under pressure (Ubben and Hughes, 1992). Professional Background composed of Educational Attainment and Training The background of a superior is classified into two: Educational and Occupational. The first one refers to the educational attainment, either by degree or specialization while the latter refers to the specific working experience of a person. Challenges in Leadership in Higher Education It is clear from a wide-range of review of published literature throughout the world that there is a difference between the academic and corporate environments, and it has impacts on both the nature and experience of leadership (Johnston, 2007). Academic Management and Leadership in India Subject coordinators are not only expected to improve the quality of education but also to manage their departments well. Experience of Leadership as to Teaching Experiencing the leadership of teaching is expected as to faculty members in a university. According to Martin, et. al (2003), One element of the context of teaching is teachers’ experience of academic leadership. Progress in the Subjects Coordinators’ role Subject Coordinators role become firmly established in response to the drastic change and many developments in the curriculum since 1989, when the introduction of National Curriculum in England and Wales began to place countless new problems and pressure on teachers in terms of their knowledge and capabilities (Farmery, 2004). Self-Assessment Skills among Academic Leaders According to Jaradat (2012), total quality measures must be applied to higher education institutions like some general and special accreditation requirements. Self-assessment from members of the faculty serves as a tool to improve the performance of not only the education institution but also the academic leaders as well. Respondents The respondents for this study are the subject coordinators in the following colleges in the University of Santo Tomas: Faculty of Engineering, College of Architecture, College of Commerce and Business Administration and College of Tourism and Hotel Management, College of Nursing, College of Fine Arts and Design, Institute of Physical Education and Athletics and College of Science. According to the data gathered from all the colleges in University of Santo Tomas, there are 117 subject coordinators. Therefore, the population of this study is 117. With this table, an accuracy test called as the Finite Population Correction Factor was made. This was made because of the low number of respondents used by the researchers.
Figure 3. Finite Population Correction Factor
The FPCF presents 93.77%, which indicates that the sample of 15 is reflective of the population as a whole. Therefore, the sample chosen in this study is accurate. Data Treatment The gathered data from the eight (8) subject coordinators were encoded and processed by one of the Statisticians.
Two Statistical Tools were used in this study. Such tools were used due to the survey as being nominal and ordinal.
The first statistical tool used by the researchers is the Chi-Squared Test with the formula: The second tool is the Spearman Rho Correlation Coefficient. The formula for Spearman correlation is as follows: Once the correlation is computed, the degree of correlation are analyzed as follows: Data Gathering Techniques This study used the descriptive type of research; this type of research approach “involves the identification of the attributes of a particular phenomenon that is based on an observational basis, or the exploration of correlation between two or more phenomena” (Williams, 2007, p.66).
The main aim of descriptive type of research is to verify formulated hypothesis that refers to the present situation of the study in order to demonstrate it well. Table 1: Assessment (Importance) of the respondents when grouped according to Professional background Figure 1 : Significant difference of Three (3) training areas that are most important to development over the next two years Table 2 Curriculum (Importance) of the respondents when grouped according to Professional background Figure 2 presents the significant difference of the number of faculty members supervise, and the respondent’s curriculum in terms of importance. Significant difference was observed with p-value lower than 0.05. This result is because of the respondents with high number of supervised faculty are higher importance in terms of curriculum. Table 3 presents the Teaching (Satisfaction) of the respondents when grouped according to Professional background.The Three (3) training areas that are most important to the development over the next two years will be: Most Important, Second Most, Third Most. Figure 3 presents the significant difference of the number of faculty members supervise, and the respondent’s curriculum in terms of satisfaction. Significant difference was observed with p-value lower than 0.05. This result is because of the respondents with lower years of being subject/program coordinator have higher satisfaction in terms of curriculum. Table 4 presents the Administration (Satisfaction) of the respondents when grouped according to Professional background. Profile in terms of “Field of study most involved in” has a p-value lower than 0.05 which means that there is significant relationship between the respondent’s Field of study most involved in and Administration (Satisfaction). The contingency Coefficient ranges from 0.500 and above which indicates high level of relationship, 0.300-0.500 moderate while those below 0.300 indicate low degree. Figure 4 presents the significant difference of the field of study they are most involved in and the respondent’s administration in terms of satisfaction. Significant difference was observed with p-value lower than 0.05. This result is because of the respondents that are most involved in Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences have higher level of satisfaction in terms of satisfaction. Table 5 presents the generic capability as a subject coordinator of the respondents when grouped according to Professional background. Profile in terms of “Years have been employed in the university,” has a p-value lower than 0.05 which means that there is significant relationship between the respondent’s Years have been employed in the university, and satisfaction in generic capability as a subject coordinator. The contingency Coefficient ranges from 0.500 and above which indicates high level of relationship, 0.300-0.500 moderate while those below 0.300 indicate low degree. Figure 5 presents the significant difference of the years that the respondents have been employed and the respondent’s generic capability as a subject coordinator. Significant difference was observed with p-value lower than 0.05. This result is because of the respondents with more years employed have higher satisfaction. Table 6 presents the Rate the degree of significance for the role of a subject coordinator when grouped according to Professional background.On the other hand, profile in terms of “The Three (3) training areas that are most important to development over the next two years will be: Most Important” has a p-value lower than 0.05 which means that there is significant relationship between the respondent’s training and Rate the degree of significance for the role of a subject coordinator. The contingency Coefficient ranges from 0.500 and above which indicates high level of relationship, 0.300-0.500 moderate while those below 0.300 indicate low degree. The reason for insignificant result is because most of the respondents perceived “4” on the degree of significance for the role of a subject coordinator. Figure 6 presents the significant difference of Three (3) training areas that are most important to development over the next two years will be: Most Important and the respondent’s Rate the degree of significance for the role of a subject coordinator. Significant difference was observed with p-value lower than 0.05. This result is because of the respondents’ degrees of significance are higher on Management Development, Philosophy, Presentation skills. Table 7 presents the relationship in between satisfaction and importance of Assessment, Curriculum, Teaching and Administrator. With p-value greater than 0.05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis on Assessment, Teaching and Administrator. These present a positive correlation coefficient which indicates a direct relationship. As Satisfaction increases, importance also increases in terms of Assessment, Teaching and Administrator. Table 8 presents the relationship in between satisfaction with the relationship as to the said people and current relationship status as with the people in the positions. With p-value greater than 0.05, we fail to reject the null hypothesis and therefore conclude that there is no significant relationship in between satisfaction with the relationship as to the said people and current relationship status as with the people in the positions. The relationship presents a moderate degree of relationship with 0.408 correlation coefficient. Data Analysis 5.1What are the roles of a subject coordinator?
Based on the surveys answered, the roles of the subject coordinators are: To implement the policies provided by the top management, to supervise and assess their co-teachers, to motivate them in order to achieve positive outcomes, to suggest and cooperate with their colleagues in solving problems, to update the course into the modern trend and, to recommend good ideas for the improvement of the subject. Aside from such, the subject coordinators also participate in choosing/hiring a professor in their said subject area. They are also in charge in assigning the number of units to their every subordinate professor. These were all gathered from the answers of the Subject Coordinators in the conducted survey. Conclusion 5.2What are the qualifications of a subject coordinator?
Aside from being a professor in the University, there are no other qualifications required to be a subject coordinator. This data was only gathered from the selected colleges in the University of Santo Tomas; as stated in the above analysis, the Deans are the ones appointing or assigning respective subject coordinators. 5.3Is a background on management one of the primary criteria in selecting a coordinator?
No. A background on Management is not a primary criterion in selecting a Subject Coordinator. It may be an edge if such subject coordinators have a background on Management but it is not considered a primary criterion. As above stated, it is the Dean who appoints a subject coordinator; regardless of any qualifications such as educational background. However, factors such as seniority and experience as a subject coordinator significantly contribute in being assigned as a subject coordinator. 5.4 How is a background on management relevant for subject coordinators?
Based on the results, a professional background on management is not relevant to assert a subject coordinator’s managing capacity. However, as subject coordinators, who has a dual relationship with both the top management and their subordinates, having an occupational background (experience and training) is essential. This is so because they are primarily responsible for the implementation of policies, developing the curriculum and also the affairs and schedule of his co-faculty members. A management background based on experience and training, may then help them to handle the tasks easily. In such positions, those principles must be put into application and will greatly affect the whole organization. 5.5 What are the means to improve a subject coordinator’s managing capacity?
In order to improve the managing capacity of the Subject Coordinators, trainings and seminars must be organized by the University specifically for them. This study found out that the key training areas are (1) management development, (2) philosophy of education, and (3) presentation skills; focus on said areas would positively affect a subject coordinators managing capacity. 5.6 How does a coordinator’s managing capacity affect their subordinates?
The results show that based on the self-assessed managing capacity of subject coordinators, there is no significant effect as to their relationship with their subordinates. It is well-settled that professional background may not be used in asserting one’s level of managing capacity. However, as a subject coordinator, it is essential to assert their competence and capacity towards their subordinates so as to effectively function as a coordinator. This is so because as one of respondents stated, they are also in charge in the affairs of their subordinates. 5.7Does a high managing capacity result to good leadership?
Subject coordinators greatly affect the whole department, either positively or negatively, depending on their self-assessed managing capacity. However, the results have shown that there is no significant effect on the self-assessed managing capacity of subject coordinators; as such, a high managing capacity will not always likely to result to good leadership. RECOMMENDATIONS CHAPTER III: Research Methodology Research Design: Quantitative Design This research was conducted in order to determine whether professional background (educational background and training) plays a significant role in the ability of subject coordinators to render effective management decisions.
To know the possible advantages and disadvantages as well as the reliability of the instrument used in this study.
In order to answer these goals, the researchers decided to acquire the perspective of the subject coordinators in line with this topic. On leadership, the researchers seek to answer the following:
•How does a coordinator’s managing capacity affect his department?
•Does a high managing capacity result to good leadership?
•What are the efficiency measures affecting the subject coordinators?