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Chapter 11: Expanding West

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John Kennedy

on 9 February 2018

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Transcript of Chapter 11: Expanding West

Chapter 11: Expanding West
Westward Expansion
II. Texas Revolution
III. Mexican-American War
IV. California Gold Rush
I. Trails to the West
A. Americans Move West
1. "high hat"
2. John Jacob Astor
3. mountain men
Jedediah Smith
Jim Bridger
Jim Beckwourth
4. rendezvous
5. provide knowledge for future settlers
A. Manifest Destiny
B. Mexican-American War
1. Conflict Breaks Out
Mexico still claimed Texas
Disagreement over the border: Rio Grande or Nueces River

B. Oregon Trail
1. Missionaries
2. Few converts
3. Spread of stories about the land attracted settlers
4. Most settled in present day CA & OR

D. Mormon Trail
1. Joseph Smith
founded Mormons in 1830
church heavily criticized because of polygamy
murdered by a mob in 1844
2. Brigham Young
took over for Smith
moved Mormons away for their own safety
3. Salt Lake City, Utah
C. Sante Fe Trail
1. 1821 Mexican Independence opened up the West
2. William Becknell
3. Dangerous trail
rough mountains
Native Americans
1. Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
2. empresarios
3. Stephen F. Austin
"Old 300"
grew cotton, had slaves
disobeyed Mexican laws
outnumbered Tejanos 6-1 by 1830
4. General Santa Anna
A. American Settlers Move to Texas (Tejas)
B. Texans Revolt Against Mexico
4. An Independent Nation
Lonestar Republic (1836)
Sam Houston President
wanted to join the U.S.A.
President Jackson refused
didn't want to add another slave state
3. Battle @ San Jacinto
Santa Anna overconfident & careless
Texans untrained & outnumbered
Houston used a surprise attack to destroy Mexican forces
Santa Anna forced to sign treaty giving Texas their independence
2. Battle at the Alamo
abandoned mission in San Antonio
forces led by William Travis along w/ James Bowie & Davy Crockett
183 vs. 1,800
held out for 2 weeks
over 1,000 Mexicans killed
"Remember the Alamo"
slaughter @ Goliad
1. Texas Independence
Austin jailed
Sam Houston in charge of
Texas army
declared their independence in March 1836
The Alamo
John Sullivan
slavery question?
a. Dispute over Oregon
U.S. Britain shared
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
settled for 49th parrallel
b. Texans
having financial and military problems
annexed in1845
angered the Mexican govt.
1. Acquiring New Territory
a. Mission system dominated
b. large farms (ranches)
c. Native Americans often forced to work on these farms
2. California Under Mexico
a. By 1820's, there are fewer missions
b. Great distance from Mexico
c. Felt little connection to Mexican govt.
d. 3,200 colonists
3. The Californios
2. War Begins
a. Polk Urges War
3,500 troops, led by Zachary Taylor, stationed along the Rio Grande
Mexico crossed & ambushed American troops
Congress declares war
b. Capturing New Mexico
3. Bear Flag Revolt
4. War's End

1. Agreements & Payments
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ($15 million)
Gadsden Purchase
2. Surge of American Settlers
3. Cultural Encounters
4. Water Rights
C. American Settlement in the Mexican Cession
A. Discovery of Gold Brings Settlers
1. Before the Gold Rush
Few Americans
John Sutter
The Donner Party
2. Gold In California
A. Sutter's Mill
James Marshall
agreed to keep it a secret
B. Forty-niners (about 80,000 people)
San Francisco population
1848 = 800
1850 = 25,000
3. Staking a Claim
A. Little mining experience
B. "Stake a Claim"
disagreements occurred
sometimes turned violent
C. Placer Miners
D. Very few struck it rich
4. Life In Mining Camps
A. The Gold Seekers
most were unmarried men
5% were women or children
B. Some made money opening up other businesses
5. Immigrants to California
A. Chinese
10% of the 49ers
Americans didn't welcome them
foreign miners tax
B. Other Immigrants
Levi Strauss

B. Impact on California
1. Population Boom
becomes U.S. state 1850
ruined life for Californios
2. Economic Growth
transcontinental railroad
Full transcript