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OT Timeline 1922-1949
Transcript of OT Timeline 1922-1949
US and World History 1922-1949
Significant Events in Healthcare
OT Theories Developed
Development of OT
Pragmatism vs Structuralism
Charles Sanders Pierce
Pragmatist Maxim- “Consider the practical effects of the objects of your conception. Then, your conception of those effects is the whole of your conception of the object.”- Charles Sanders Pierce
In other words: Ideas should be subject to what we do in practice. Practice grounds all of our ideas.
Pragmatism in a nutshell
Was part of the pragmatist circle and the article we read was heavily influenced by his view of pragmatism
“The only way to attain balance in all this is actual doing, actual practice, a program of wholesome living as the basis of wholesome feeling and thinking and fancy and interests”
Adolf Meyer from The Philosophy of Occupation Therapy
As the century progressed OT’s began to move away from this holistic view and toward structuralism and a reductionist approach.
By 1949 OT’s were roughly split between pragmatism and structuralism
Transition to Structuralism
Structuralism emphasizes that people are part and product of larger structures and systems, such as society, cultures, and governments.
They tend to deemphasize holistic, agent driven view of people.
If you want to understand how a person works you look at all of his various parts and the structure they make and then you understand the whole.
What is structuralism?
The development of OT during the time period 1922 – 1949
1922: Eleanor Clarke Slagle established headquarters of AOTA in New York
First issue of Archives of Occupational Therapy published containing Adolph Meyer’s article
“The Philosophy of Occupational Therapy”
The 1920s: Establishing the foundation of profession and standards of education
1923: Committee on Teaching Methods of the AOTA presented “Minimum standards for courses of training in Occupational therapy”
Recommended minimum length of a course of study was one year ( 9 months of medical and craft training and 3 months of clinical work in hospitals).
1925: The physicians connected to AOTA pushed for Occupational Therapy to be included in medical school curricula.
The 1930s : women take the leadership
1930: Educational standards were expanded to a total training time of 18 months.
1930-1940: Women taking leadership roles in OT institutions ; they had to fight for integrity of the profession when physical medicine threatened to merge occupational therapy into physical therapy.
Birth of Behavior Modification as therapy
1933 : AOTA approached Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association (AMA) to request cooperation in development of educational programs for OTs
1935 : AMA adopted accredited educational programs for OTs
THE 1940s : Entry into World War II
1940 : With advent of World War II the demand for occupational therapists exploded; it resulted in new education programs and fast growing number of occupational therapists.
1945 – growth in postwar vocational rehabilitation
1947: First textbook for occupational therapy in United States published, edited by Helen Willard and Claire Spackman
1947: Educational expansion into graduate level - first master degree in occupational therapy at the University of Southern California
Influential OT thought leaders during period of 1922-1949
Adolph Meyer, MD-philosophy of OT
Eleanor Clarke Slagle, social worker-habit training, use of normal daily activities with mentally ill , educational standards
Thomas Kidner , architect-industrial training ( WW I soldiers)
William Rush Dunton JR, MD- publisher of “Archives of Occupational therapy”
Common Diseases and Treatments
Common Diseases and Treatments from 1922-1949
Around 1920, the number of Americans living in cities surpassed that of those living in rural areas.
54 million Americans lived in cities by 1920.
Urbanization in the United States and the Rise of Communicable Diseases
Preventing further infection
Prior to the advent of antibiotics, the only way of controlling the spread of infection was by isolating patients in sanatoria or hospitals limited to only TB patients.
By 1938, there were more than 700 facilities in the United States.
Until the discovery of streptomycin in the early 1940s, the typical treatment consisted of isolation, rest, and good nutrition.
If no progress was made, the lung was collapsed surgically in order to let it rest and heal.
What state was a popular destination for those suffering from tuberculosis because of its climate?
A Quick Bit of Trivia
By 1920, Tucson had around 7,000 “lungers” who had come for treatment of TB.
A negative pressure chamber (commonly referred to as an iron lung) was developed in 1928.
During treatment, the patient would be positioned within the device with only his or her head outside the machine.
Changing pressures inside the machine allowed the patient to breath even if his or her diaphragm did not function.
Counter to conventional practice, Elizabeth Kenny (an Australian nurse) advocated the need to exercise muscles affected by polio rather than immobilizing them.
Kenny’s principles of muscle rehabilitation became the foundation of physical therapy.
The History of U.S. Healthcare 1922-1949
1921: The first National Hospital Day
is observed on May 12, the 101st
anniversary of Florence Nightingale’s
1923: First U.S. Cancer Hospital is founded
1923-1928: America Fights to Eradicate Infectious Disease
1927: First issue of Bulletin of the American Hospital Association is published.
1928: Penicillin is Discovered
1928: The first clinical use of the iron lung to combat respiratory failure is used at Children's Hospital, Boston
1929: First International Hospital Congress takes place
1929: Blue Cross Roots – first hospital insurance group plan
1929: Narcotic Control Act
1930: The National Institute (late Institutes) of
1931: Civilian hospitals help WWI vets.
1932: Yellow Fever Vaccine Invented
1933: Hospital Insurance
1934: Blue Cross plans spring up
1935: The Social Security Act was passed.
1935: Alcoholics Anonymous founded
1935: Social Security Act signed
1936: Randolph–Sheppard Act
1937: First blood bank created
1938: The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was passed.
1938: The March of Dimes
1938: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Wagner-O’Day Act.
1939:The Federal Security Agency was created, bringing together related federal activities in the fields of health, education and social insurance.
1941: Blood for GIs
1943: Barden-LaFollette Act
1943: FDR in his State of the Union address calls for a social insurance system that would extend “from the cradle to the gave.”
1944: GI Bill
1944: Public Health Service Act gives NIH authority to award grants for nonfederal research
1945: First kidney dialysis patient treated
1946: National Mental Health Act
The Decade of the 1920’s in America was also known as the ‘Roaring Twenties’ and was marked by wealth and excess
In 1929 the Stock Market crashed
The Great Depression begins and the world suffers widespread poverty and the loss of economic growth
As part of the New Deal, the
Social Security Act was put into place in 1935
In 1933, FDR begins the ‘New Deal’, a collection of initiatives intended to provide jobs and security for the American people.
In 1933 the first German Concentration Camp is erected, and Hilter becomes Fuhrer the following year. Then in 1936 the Spanish Civil War begins, and in 1939 Germany invades Poland marking the beginning of WWII.
In 1945, the US drops the atomic bomb on Hiroshima marking the end of WWII, the UN is formed, and the Philippines are granted independence
June 6, 1944, now known as D-Day, marked the beginning of the Battle of Normandy
In 1941, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
As the war ended, thousands of soldiers returned home with physical and emotional injuries.