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Transcript of Inclusive Education
What is inclusion?
The Aims of Today...
Provide an overall understanding of inclusion
The Warnock Report 1978
By Danielle, Heather and Lauren
Parent support workshops
Categorising and labeling individuals according to their handicap is to be abolished!
The Warnock Report stressed the importance of focusing on the individual's education rather than their disability (Ibid).
From Danielle Heather and Lauren
To discuss controversial debates surrounding inclusive education
To provide arguments for and against segregation
To identify current legislation and policies related to inclusive education
Provide a historical context of inclusive education
1974 became the chair of the Special Education committee which developed the Education for Handicapped Children's Act.
"There is a conceptual confusion surrounding what inclusion is, what it is supposed to do and for whom" (Julie Allan, 2008:1)
The definition of inclusion means something different to everyone.
Sense of belonging within a community
Participation, collaboration and diversity
Inclusion in education is concerned with breaking down barriers to learning and increasing participation for all students, treating all learners on the basis of equality and non-discrimination (CSIE, 2002).
How did the concept of inclusive education evolve?
Medical Model -
Social Model - Integration/Inclusion
In June 1994 representatives of 92 governments and 25 international organisations formed the World Conference on Special Needs Education.
Called for inclusion to be the norm.
Guiding principle that ordinary schools should accommodate all children.
Lack of physical and human resources
Possibility of disrupting class lessons and other pupils learning
Lack of training
Parent's right to choose their child's school
When is the line drawn? Who is in? Who is out?
CSIE: Reasons Against
"Segregated schooling has never proved to be superior to mainstream schooling"
"There is no compelling body of evidence that segregated 'special' education have significant benefits for students"
Research shows that segregated 'special' schooling has been associated with negative experiences and negative consequences for segregated pupils.
..."Segregated 'special' schools stifles creativity of mainstream schools..."
"Retaining segregated 'special' schools is out of step with the Government's learning disability policy, valuing people..."
"Segregated schooling does not lead to inclusion."
Current Legislation and Policy
Arguments for Inclusive Education
Arguments for Segregation
Mary Warnock: Controversial Debate
Case Study 2 - Craig
is aged 16 years and has Cerebral Palsy. He needs a walker and a wheelchair to get around.
He also has complex learning difficulties, resulting in him having the mental capacity of an 8 year old.
He is currently in an ASN school but his parents feel he is not being included within mainstream society or with other children his own age.
The Curriculum for Excellence
This Policy places duties on local authorities, and other agencies, to provide additional support where needed to enable and help any child or young person to benefit from education and promote equality.
Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004
A Key principle - the development of a more flexible curricular and learning approaches to meet the needs of all children and young people more effectively.
Appreciation of diversity
Preparation for all children to be part of an inclusive society
Time & money spent on determining pupils classification
Families become more integrated in the community
"For a lot of teachers inclusion is not a priority. They have to focus on getting results".
"I heard a teacher say she was not paid to "baby-sit" children who she felt were incapable of learning. She just sends them out of class with a member of support staff".
"Every child should have access to a teacher".
This entitled children with disabilities the right to an education in mainstream (Dare and O’Donovan,
Promoting inclusion and providing an understanding of LD/D to society.
Inclusion within an educational establishments for individuals with LD/D
"My child is in nursery and has learning difficulties. I don’t want her to go to a mainstream school" (Anon, 2011)
"Inclusion isn’t just about physically being able to attend the local school but is also about making sure that the right resources are in place to allow the child to fully “join in” and be part of their class and their school, not only educationally but socially too" (Anon, 2011)
The mother worries her child is still behind her class mates and feels she will benefit more from being in a school where she will not feel pressured and can be given all the support needed.
Bullying for peers
Full time support
Complexity of Learning Difficulty/ Disability
A mother worries her son will be bullied by his peers as they do not understand his difficulties. He does not have good social skills and she feels her son will have no friends if he goes to a mainstream school.
The medical model of disability dominated throughout the nineteenth and twentieth century.
1862 Lunacy (Scotland) Act
1872 Education (Scotland) Act outlined the compulsory education for all
1907 Education of Defective Children (Scotland) Act
1954 Special Education Treatment (Scotland) Regulations
The Melville Committee Report (1973) provided the basic recommendation that all children are educable and should be educated
The 1978 Warnock report and the report for Her Majesty's Inspectorate in Scotland both gave rise to integration, a practice of bringing children with special needs closer to their mainstream peers.
The term inclusion, endorsed by the 1994 Salamanca Statement was intended as a radical alternative to integration.
'individual' or 'personal tragedy' model
views disability as a problem
a time where psychiatry, eugenics and IQ testing was popular
focuses on what a disabled person cannot do
labels disabled people as 'ill' and in need of treatment
leaves people feeling powerless, without choice and dependent on others
changes in the 1970's
disability rights movement (UPIAS)
parent support groups (MENCAP)
aims to remove barriers to inclusion
( Hamill and Clark, 2005; Allan, 2008)
"There is now substantial evidence that most, if not all, children with disabilities, including children with very severe disabilities, can be educated appropriately without isolation from peers who do not have disabilities."
(Ringer and Kerr, 1988)
Is mainstream the right educational environment for Craig?
Count on Us Report
So for individuals with learning difficulties or disabilities, inclusive education aims to help break down their learning barriers and make them feel
equal within their learning environment. Inclusion
only works when the individual involved is
benefiting from being included
poor social experiences
reduced academic experiences
lower student aspirations and teacher expectations
high absence rates
difficulty re-integrating into mainstream
poverty in adulthood
poor preparation for adulthood
lack of autonomy
lack of choice
become dependent on others
lack of self-esteem and status
subject to bullying
Inclusive education is still a big debate because everyone has their own idea of what inclusion is and how the concept of inclusion can be developed within schools, many people believe individuals with additional support needs should be in a segregated school because that is where they will get the best support. There is no apparent right or wrong answer.
The developments in inclusion and education can be seen through the most recent legislation and policies we have talked about today, all which promote inclusion and equality.
Through this presentation we hope we have made you think about both sides of the inclusive education/ segregation argument. As well as enlightened you to the recent controversy of Baroness Mary Warnock’s new views and changed attitude on inclusive education.
Count us in report – from the HM Inspectorate of Education, this report aims to achieve Inclusion in Scottish schools by improving understanding of effective practice – such as ways of adaptation and support for each individual.
In 2005 Mary Warnock published a pamphlet which showed a change in her attitude to special needs and inclusion. Some main points of the pamphlet were;
Inclusion should have the feeling of belonging which is necessary for well-being and successful learning
Inclusion in practice can lead to individuals being physically included but emotionally excluded
Small specialist school provisions are needed
Professionals should be making each individual the priority instead of what resources
Individuals with additional support need are inevitably going to be bullied in a mainstream setting, individuals are less vulnerable in specialist schools
Allan, J., 2008. Inclusion for all? [pdf] Available at: <https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/596/1/Scottish-Education-paper2007.pdf> [Accessed 13 February 2013].
CSIE., 2002. Inclusion in Education: the right to belong to the mainstream. [pdf] Available at: <http://www.csie.org.uk/resources/inc-ed-02.pdf> [Accessed 27 February 2013].
CSIE., 2004. Reasons Against Segregated Schooling. [pdf] CSIE: Bristol. Available at: <http://www.csie.org.uk/resources/reasons-against-seg-04.pdf> [Accessed 13 February 2013].
CSIE., 2008. The UNESCO Salamanca Statement. [online] Available at: <http://www.csie.org.uk/inclusion/unesco-salamanca.shtml> [Accessed 28 February 2013].
Dare, A. and O’Donovan, M., 2002. Good Practice in Caring for Young Children with Special Needs. United Kingdom: Nelson Thornes Ltd.
East Renfrewshire Council., 2011. Parental Involvement . [online] Available at: <http://www.ea.e-renfrew.sch.uk/parents/Categories/asn.htm> [Accessed 8 March 2013].
Fitzgerald, S., 2008. Warnock and SEN. [online] Available at: <http://www.specialeducationalneeds.co.uk/UsefulInformation/SEN-EducationInfo/warnock.html> [Accessed 25 February 2013].
Glazzard, J., 2011. Perceptions of the barriers to effective inclusion in one primary school: voices of teachers and teaching assistants. British Journal of Learning Support. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gray, S. and Wallace, J., 2005. Supporting Children and Young People's Learning: A Handbook for Parents When Their Child Needs Additional Support. Scotland: Scottish Consumer Council.
Hamill, P. and Clark, K., 2005. Additional Support Needs: An introduction to ASN from Nursery to Secondary. Paisley: Hodder Gibson.
Hodkinson, A. and Vickerson, P., 2009. Key Issues in Special Educational Needs and Inclusion. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Thomas, G. and Loxley, A., 2007. Deconstructing Special Education and Constructing Inclusion. 2nd ed. Berkshire: Open University Press.
Warnock, M. and Norwich, B., 2010. Special Educational Needs: A New Look. 2nd ed. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.