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Gold

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Ryan Dunlop

on 25 March 2013

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Transcript of Gold

Gold Environmental Impact from Mining Gold Gold can be extracted in various methods, gravity concentration, froth floatation, panning, pyrometallugy, cyanidation etc. Cyanidation is the most popular type of extraction. Gold is a very heavy element. Gold has a specific gravity of 19.3 when it's ores are around 2.6. Another method is called panning. Panning is when you swoosh the gold and its ores in a pan filled with water on an angle extracting the ores and keeping the gold in the pan. As gold is a lot heavier than it's ores, it sinks in the water but stays in the pan when the ores are easily taken away with the water when the pan is on the angle. This is a form of gravity concentration. How is gold extracted from it's sources? Gold can be found on almost every continent on earth on either land or water. The largest gold deposits are located in Africa and India. The Town of Johannesburge in South America is the world's largest gold deposit so far. In the deep sea there is 10 trillion dollars of gold, but for the amount of money it would take to go to these depths and to suck all of it up is more money then the gold is worth. When mining gold it is attached to its ores in vines. In rivers, gold is found in nuggets and little pieces of gold. What form is gold found in nature and where can gold be found? Gold today is used for a variety of things. Gold salts are used for medicine. Injectable gold is used to reduce pain and swelling in severe injuries. It is used to treat some forms of cancer. As gold has the ability to reflect light very well, it is used inside astronaut visors which are attached to their helmets. It is also used in photograph developing to give red tones to their pictures. Believe it or not, gold is used in some cocktails and in Goldwasser which is a german liqueur and is also used to decorate food dishes in some high class restaurants. What is gold used for today? Gold is a quite soft for a metal It can be scratched by a penny. It is a bright sun yellow colour, but varies on how much silver is mixed in with it. The more silver, the more white the overall colour is going to be. It's melting point is 1064.76 degrees celsius, and it's boiling point is around 2700 degrees celsius. Heat and light both reflect off of gold very well. Electric currents pass through this element easily because gold is soft, it is ductile and malleable. This means that gold can be hammered into sheets and can also be drawn into thin wires. Physical Properties Gold was first discovered in 2600 B.C in the royal tombs of ancient civilization. In this time period the Egyptians used this substance to make colour. They found a way to add gold to glass to make the glass a ruby red colour. They also used this beautiful metal to make sculptures and jewelry. When was this element discovered, and how was this element used in this time period? Chemical Symbol Au (aurum) Atomic Number 79 Atomic Mass 196.9665 = 197 Transition Metal Group 11 (IB) Froth Floatation: Froth Flotation is a method of extracting gold by separating hydrophobic minerals by attaching them to gas bubbles into froth layers. When in these bubbles of froth layers they extract them by scraping the bubbles off. Gold is then separated from the ores and gets clean before selling it to a customer. Pyrometallurgy Method: The pyrometallurgy method is the smelting and refining of the base metal oers and concentrate. Clorination is part of this process. The method consists of the thermal treatment of minerals that brings out physical and chemical transformations to enable recovery of the gold. This process employs high-temperature chemical reactions to extract gold from it's ores. Calcium chloride is a chlorinating agent that is most widely used in the process. The precious metal reacts with chlorine to form the corresponding chlorides which are volatile at the temperature required. Most pyrometallurgical processes require energy input to sustain the temperature at which the process takes place ie, electrical heat or in the form of fossil fuel combustion. Mining gold is terrible for the environment, not from extracting it from its ores, but from mining it out from the ground. For a normal 18 karat wedding band it leaves behind 20 tons of unwanted ores and rocks. When digging old rocks and ores it sets off chemical reactions that create acids. Some of these acids drain into lakes and rivers killing marine life. This is not only bad for marine life, it is also bad for the miners being exposed to these acids. Cyanidation Method Cyanide, a poison that can cause loss of consciousness or cause death if you have breathed the gas or eaten the liquid or solid form, has many uses. Some uses are, the use in metal cleaning operations, as an industrial bug killer, etc. Cyanide can be used to extract gold. It is normally done in a controlled mill environment or on rock piles in the open. This method is also called "vat leaching". It mixes finely crushed ore with a cyanide salt in water. The cyanide binds to the gold ions, and makes them soluble in water, thereby allowing separation from the rock. Compound Name and Description The most common compound that gold is attached to is auric chloride (AuCl3) and chlorauric acid (HAuCl4). But there is no specific compound that contains gold. Gold is actually more commonly found with no compounds attached to it. Auric chloride is also known as Gold (III) and is a chemical compound of gold and chloride. It's mass is 303 g/mol, it's density is 4.70 g/cm3, and it's melting point is 254 degrees celsius. Chlorauric acid is an inorganic compound. It is an orange-yellow solid. It has a mass of 340 g/mol, a density of 3.90 g/cm3, and a melting point of 254 degrees celsius. What are the compounds used for? Auric Chloride is used for a mild acid catalyst for preparation of pharmaceuticals, and Chlorauric Acid is used to refine gold to a much more pure state. By: Ryan Dunlop To: Mrs. Schissler Gold P.S. Sorry for not including my works sited, it says there is an error when I try to copy the document and place it in my Prezi. I will print it off for you to give to you in person. Sorry Without this it would be a difficult change for us as humans. As there would be less jobs without mining. As well there would possibly be no wedding rings without gold. The environment would be better without all of the harmful acids going into our lakes.
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