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Introduction to the Judicial Branch
Transcript of Introduction to the Judicial Branch
national courts and no national judiciary. Each state interpreted laws as they saw fit, ignored other states' rulings, and ultimately caused multiple disputes between states. Alexander Hamilton even wrote that "Laws are a dead letterwithout courts to expound and define their true meaning and operation." The Constitution
solves this problem. We now have a dual court system.
This means that we have a
but each state also has their own court system. National Judiciary There are 2 kinds of Federal Courts: The Constitutional Courts and the Special Courts. JURISDICTION: the authority of a court to hear, try, or decide upon a case. Original Jurisdiction - Appellate Jurisdiction - Concurrent Jurisdiction - The authority of the first court to hear a case A court that hears a case on appeal from a lower court The shared power to hear cases. Exclusive Jurisdiction - Cases that can only be heard in a Federal Court Such as cases involving Ambassadors, trials involving federal crimes (like conterfeit), cases involving acts of Congress, and suits involving copyright. Such as cases involving citizens from two different states. Therefore, jurisdiction DIRECTLY limits which court may decide on a case. A federal court has jurisdiction IF... A citizen from one State sues a citizens from another State
The case is about a federal question: The Constitution, Congressional law, and non-criminal matters such as bankruptcy.
A State is suing a resident from another state
The case is about a federal crime such as conterfeiting or piracy.
A State is suing another State
The case involves ambassadors, treaties, or public ministers.
The Supreme Court exercises both original & appellate jurisdiction. COURT OFFICERS Magistrates They are appointed by the judges of each of the 94 district courts
They do not need to be appointed by the President and Senate because they are officers that hold minor duties.
There are now more than 400
They serve 8 year terms
Their duties include issuing warrants of arrest, setting bail, hearing evidence to decide if a federal criminal should be held before a grand jury, and trying somecases concerning minor offenses. Marshals The President the Senate appoint a marshal to serve each district court.
They perform duties much like a county sheriff.
They make arrests in criminal cases, hold the accussed in custody, secur jurors, serve legal papers, keep order in the courtroom, and execute court orders and decisions.
They resapond to emergency situations such as riots, mob violence, and terrorism.
They are appointed for 4 year terms. Up Next: The Supreme Court