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The Civil Rights Movement

US History 1945-1975

lashonda haddock

on 4 December 2018

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Transcript of The Civil Rights Movement

Ch 23 The Civil Rights Movement
Two Types of segregation
de jure- or imposed by law- Jim Crow
de facto- or by custom- like housing patterns
Sec 1 Early Demands For Equality
CORE- founded by James Farmer
uses sit-ins to protest segregation in Chicago
WWII sets the stage- soldiers come home demanding rights
Rosa Parks
The NAACP and Thurgood Marshall challenge segregation in the courts
They argue that segregation in schools violates students 14th amendment rights
"Seperate is not equal!!!!"
Earl Warren and the Supreme Court declare Plessy v. Ferguson and segregation unconstitutional
People begin to protest segregation
Brown decision effects
The Little Rock 9- 1957
1st attempt to integrate schools in the country- Central High School
encountered a lynch mob on their way to school
President Eisenhower called in the National guard to protect the students for the entire year
White Citizen's Councils spring up to fight for segregation
refused to give up her seat- NAACP activist
was not the 1st
black community refuses to ride public transit
Dr. MLK Jr. is chosen to led the protest
lasts for over a year
The Montgomery Bus Boycott
December 1, 1955
bus company lost thousands of dollars, had to give in to boycott
segregation ends on Montgomery buses
the birth of the modern Civil Rights Movement begins
King and others start the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to fight for rights
De Jure
De facto
1898 Plessy v. Ferguson made Jim Crow legal
"seperate but Equal"
"Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them."
It was unlawful for whites and blacks to purchase and consume alcohol on the same location. Penalty for this act was a misdemeanor punishable by a fine from $50 to $500 or an imprisonment in the parish prison or jail up to two years.
blacks in the North lived in certain neighborhoods and had low paying jobs
This prohibited African American and white families from living in the same home
Building permits for building Negro houses in white communities, or any portion of a community inhabited principally by white people, and vice versa prohibited. Penalty: violators fined from $50 to $2,000, "and the municipality shall have the right to cause said building to be removed and destroyed."
Brown Vs. Board Of Education
Emmett Till- 14 yrs
the lynching of Till in Money Mississippi by a white man because he whistled at his wife was a catalyst for the movement
The first sit-ins were held in Greensboro, NC
A&T students refused to leave their seats at a segregated counter
sparked such protests around the country
Soon, SNCC-Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was formed in Raleigh, at Shaw University,
wanted to create change at the grassroots level
Sec 2 The Movement Gains Ground
The Freedom Rides
involved both black and white students on two buses
were testing a federal law that banned segregated busing in interstate travel
Route from DC to Louisiana
One bus was bombed in Alabama and the students on the were attacked by a mob in Birmingham
the Kennedy administration called in troops to help them get through Alabama
Local troops arrested them in Jackson and many were jailed for weeks
Medgar Evers helps him win a federal case to attend the school
at first, the governor refuses to let him in
federal Marshall's are then called to escort him to campus
rioting breaks out- 2 men were killed
Medgar Evers was assassinated, and Meredith shot and nearly killed years later
James Meredith integrates Ole Miss
The Children's March
MLK holds non-violent protests in the city
he is thrown in jail on Good Friday
from jail writes " The Letter from Birmingham Jail- he and others tired of waiting for reform
Children joined the marches when King is released
Commissioner Bull Connor orders the marches end
uses dogs and fire hoses on demonstrators, mostly children
nation shocked and appalled as the footage is shown on the nightly news
In 1963, Kennedy finally takes a stand on civil rights
calls it a moral issue
calls for a Civil Rights Bill
passed after his death
March on Washington- 1963
King's famous "I have a Dream Speech
over 200,000 people present
wanted to put pressure on Congress to pass Civil rights law
3 weeks later, 4 little girls were killed in a church bombing in Birmingham
Kennedy was killed 2 months later
LBJ was able to get a civil rights bill passed through the House
in the Senate a filibuster- the longest of the debate lasting over 14 hours
the Civil Rights Act of 1964- banned segregation in all public facilities and outlawed discrimination- Jim Crow was now against the law
Sec 3 New Successes and Challenges
n 1964, SNCC organized a voting registration campaign in Mississippi- Freedom Summer
black and white students
3 civil rights workers were killed (think Mississippi Burning)
Fannie Lou Hammer organizes the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in 1964- for minorities to have a voice in the party
In 1965, King organizes another march in Selma Alabama to gain support for a voting rights bill in Congress
Bloody Sunday
March 7, 1965
police attack marchers as they tried to cross Edmund Petus Bridge
TV cameras captured the violence
Voting Rights Act of 1965
banned literacy tests and other disfranchisement methods that had been used for years
the 24th Amendment was passed that banned the poll tax
Baker v. Carr and Reynolds v. Simms were passed by the courts to limit gerrymandering- "one man, one vote" (look at page 806)
In 1965, violence in cities like Watts, LA, prompted Johnson to establish the Kerner Commission- What was the cause of black riots?
concluded that racism was the cause and recommended policies to help with poverty in the ghetto
money was instead diverted to Vietnam

New leaders Emerge
Radicals begin to emerge in the movement, like Malcolm X, who did not think the movement went far enough
X urged blacks to take control of themselves and their own neighorhoods
young leaders of SNCC also started to believe that non-violence was not working- coined the term "black power"

The Black Panther Party
In 1966, Bobby Seale and Huey Newton founded a political party known as the Black Panthers to fight police (the pigs) brutality in the ghetto
They advocated self-sufficiency, full employment, and decent housing
They opposed the draft and dressed in black leather jackets, black berets, and sunglasses
They pressed self-defense and believed in the teachings of Mao Zedong
Their downfall came through the FBI investigation of its members

King still advocated that non-violence was the only way to have a successful movement
In 1968, MLK Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, TN while attending a sanitation workers strike
Over 100 cities rioted after King’s death
2 months later, RFK was also killed by an assassin

The Civil Rights Act of 1968 ended discrimination in housing
Accomplishments of the Civil Rights Movement
An end to de jure segregation- Civil Rights Act of 1965
A way to help end de facto segregation- CRA of 1968
Better education for blacks
Voting rights- VRA 1965
Affirmative action- made programs to make up for past discrimination against blacks, women, and other minorities
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