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Independence Movements in South America
Transcript of Independence Movements in South America
INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN
Political, Economic, Social, & Religious Causes
Conflicts/issues leading to war
• Spain set up colonies in the Americas
• Creoles and mestizos grow discontented with Spanish rule
• Revolutions occur in North America and France
• Spain’s power weakens
• Spain tries to restore authority in colonies
• Strong leaders call for independence
Bolivar & San Martin
Military campaigns and their impact on outcome
As there was an impact from the European nations that controlled most of the Latin American nations, they were not alone in being influential.
Role of Foreign Intervention
US was surprised by the independence movements and wars occurring in South America.
While they wanted to get more familiar with the situation, the relations they had with Europe would "inhibit" such actions.
The US wasn't able to formally recognize the fighting states as independent.
They were preoccupied with the British
The US government adopted a genial attitude towards the revolutionaries as early as 1810.
While not formally accepting the new govt., US still encouraged and helped them secure arms, munitions, & ships to be more prepared.
Other than that, there was no direct involvement of North America in the independence movements.
Three Reasons why the US Supports the Movements:
1. Expansionist aims
2. Trading with the South
3. Ideological sympathy
The first two are US aims for after the war with Britain and changes in trade now that they're an independent nation.
The last one is for wanting to see the independent movements succeed like that and gain freedom and be able to stand on their own.
Helping in the independence movements was very risky for the US.
Nonetheless, illegal support still continued.
Ships were made in the US and then sent to the south, but unarmed.
The independence movements were popular among US Citizens; The battles that Bolivar and San Martin waged were intriguing.
Battle of Chacabuco
In 1810, Chile had declared their independence from Spain but there were still many Spaniards in Chile.
This battle was to push the Spaniards out of Chile so they could use their independence without limit.
This battle, for Spaniards to be driven out of Chile, continued to the following year in the battle of Maipu.
After Argentina was liberated in 1816 by Jose de San Martin, he led his army across Andes to help liberate Chile with Bernardo O'Higgins and his army.
February 12th, 1817- about 3,000 troops were led by O'Higgins and San Martin to meet the Spanish Royalists.
This battle took place near Santiago, Chile.
In the beginning of this battle, troops of O'Higgins fell back but San Martin's troops swooped in, allowing O'Higgins troops to recover making the last attack.
Chile was fully independent and to commemorate the victory, the people of Santiago honoured San Martin to be governor but he gave it over to O'Higgins.
Battle of Maipu
Continued battle of the Royalists and Chileans
Argentine and Chilean rebels fought against Spanish Royalists
This battle was led by San Martin
April 5th, 1818 the rebels won
This battle had ended Chile's struggle for independence.
In 1822, the probability of independence was much higher and so the United States officially recognized Gran Colombia (present day Colombia, Venezuela, Panama and Ecuador) as a new nation.
US was the first place outside of the region to recognize any of the South American states as new nations.
Dec. 2, 1823: President James Monroe presented the Monroe Doctrine to Congress as a part of his address on the relationship between the Americas and Europe.
Addressed how Spain and Portugal were losing colonies, and other Euro. nations were looking to expand in the Americas.
Were concerned for the new formed nations in the South being conquered again.
Spain and its Colonies: Cultural Blending? Or is Spain Really the Britain of Americus Latinus?
Background: So as you all know, the Ancient America housed countries with all distinct backgrounds. These had natives that ranged from Aztecs to Mayans to Incans etc.
Aztecs, Mayans, Incans,… + Spanish Invasion= Different, yet similarly affected Latin American Countries
Why did Spain go there?
Spain, along with all other European countries were in a “Discovering New Lands” Race, which prompted them to be seeking treasure, land, natural resources, and foreign peoples.
What initially happened when Spain colonized all over the place?
• Labor, Labor, and More Labor
The indigenas were subjected to various forms of slave labor
-The monarchy in Spain did have several concerns with the Spanish Colonial control in the Latin Americas, as it might have let towards a feudal lord system that would be carried out without proper royal authority.
• Since the indigenous people being wiped out by the Spaniards would have reflected poorly on the church, they were kept around to build churches, monasteries, and serve the Spaniards.
• Ecomienda, The New Laws of the Indies, Repartimiento, and Yanaconas
-Systems that created mistreatment among the indigenous population
--Ecomienda: a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America conferring the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area.
-New Laws of the Indies (16th Century): prohibited enslavement of native peoples, ordered the release of slaves whom legal title was not proved, barred services by indigenas, and existing ecomiendas were to be dissipated
--Later decline in ecomiendas resulted in decrease of indigenas along with general: overwork, malnutrition, social disorganization, loss of will to live, epidemics, and civil wars (Peru- 1535-1550)
Spanish Monarch -> Native: Primary Strike!
Economic System: sound familiar?
US acted alone on this decision; the doctrine was known as a "statement of the right of self-protection".
Not a direct statement telling Euro. nations to stay away from the region, but more of a way to prevent other powers from taking advantage of the new independent states.
Also, an attempt at "pacification".
Squabbles of Control between Crown, Church, and Colonists
The Doctrine warned Europe to stay out of the affairs in the Americas/Western Hemisphere.
No real clear policy on what would happen if the doctrine were to be violated. The Euro. powers accepted the warning and it became the policy.
Many Latin American states liked the doctrine in the beginning, but soon realized that North America also had imperialistic values.
This led to Latin Americans to view the Monroe Doctrine more warily.
-Dominicans of Church raised voices against the offenses made against the natives
--Bartolome de Las Casas was active in struggle against Indigenous slavery, he believed that the crown had no possession over the lands of the natives by “natural law” and that Spain can only hope to convert the indigenous people by “love, and gentleness and kindness”
The Monroe Doctrine did not prevent expansion; it warned off the Europeans so the North Americans could expand themselves.
Cities vs. Haciendas
Republica de indios vs. Republica de españoles
Creoles vs. Peninsulars
limpieza de sangre (purity of blood)
Ecomenderos continue to exploit forced labor in:
Chile: until 1791
Venezuela: until the 1680's
and in Paraguay: until the early 1800's
The Spanish Crown allowed the system to also continue in areas of New Spain (Mexico) such as Oaxaca and Yucatan (Penninsula near the Gulf)
lol, conquered this place. no biggy
Ecomiendas out, Repartimientos in
In parts of central Mexico and the Andean highlands, a new system was implemented to rid of the harsh conditions due to ecomiendas (cerca 1550).
This new system replaced "forced labor" and solely required male indigenas to work in mines and on farms for a certain period of time.
Though this was supposed to be the Crown's way of regulating the native labor, it gave encomenderos the opportunity to implement more slavery-similar actions upon the idigenas.
Note* the indigenas, whilst working under the ecomienda system, did receive some token wage.
So Really: The shift further regressed the indigenous people.
Meanwhile in Peru:
Note*Repartimientos were known as mitas in Peru and Bolivia.
Mitas were the main source of labor in Peru and Bolivia, creating disastrous conditions for the workers as they slaved away in the mercury mines for fixed time periods.
In these Andean Areas, another social system caused distress with the natives: yanaconas.
I know, lots of foreign language terms to think about, bare with me here.
This separated the indigenous people from their community and forced them to serve Spaniards as personal servants (think maids and butlers or think about the medieval serf system)
And Discrimination Rears its Ugly Head
Debt servitude, slavery, coercion... what do they all have in common?
With the advances in agriculture around the 1500's, and the decreasing number of indigenas, the Spaniards and Portuguese were in the market for some free labor to tend to their:
-cacao, sugar, and tabacco crops (in Venezuela and Colombia)
-sugar cane and cotton plantations (in Peru)
Realize this: though forced native labor was legally abolished, it was a continued practice. The labor system in any given area is dependent upon that area's natural resources, the amount of colonists occupying that area, the amount of economic activity there, the cultural level of the natives, and monarch's political and economic interests in that region.
Limpieza De Sangre
So are the natives considered Muggles?
Repartimientos were known as mitas in Peru and Bolivia
Social Order within the Indies:
based upon aristocratic and feudal principles
race, occupation, and religion determined one's social status
Being of pure blood was preferred ("Old Christians")
Being a Mestizo could potentially deprive an individual of public office, as well as other high ranking professions
Privileges went in rank as follows:
Europeans -> Castas -> Indigenas -> Blacks
White skin was a symbol of social superiority (that's a surprise...not)
Problems within the Upper Class:
Creoles: Spaniards born in the colonies
Peninsulars: European-born Spaniards
LEGALLY, the law dictated that these two groups were equal in rights but creoles actually suffered discrimination
Indigenous People Problems: (Mexico and Peru)
High order members of the republica de indios caste like system were given land and their own semi feudal system to be head of in which they exploited the following:
their own people
their people's lands
women, women, women
Male Dominated Society.
These two men were known as the two crucial leading figures of the Latin American Independence movement. Both of them help the role of military leaders when no one else was able to be a leader.
Both Bolivar and San Martin understood that in order to have effective independence, ALL places needed to fight. This is why they didn't stay limited just to the countries where they stayed; they moved beyond their borders to help secure independence for all.
• Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808
• Space made agreements with Spain, thus becoming closely associated
• Creoles used this as cause for revolution
• 1810 rebellion across Latin America
In general, the battles fought were to free these Latin American countries oppressed under Spanish ruling.
With these new independent countries, they were able to create their own constitutions and become economically dependent
Battle of Boyaca
Bolivar led his army across Andes to start a war campaign to liberate Colombia
The Spanish Royalists had heard the news that Bolivar had been coming and began preparing to attack but the patriots beat the Royalists to an attack.
August 7th, 1819- The patriots led a surprise attack on the Royalists
This battle ended as the patriots cut the Royalists off on the Puente de Boyaca bridge.
The patriots had captured 1,600 Royalist troops, including the general.
The city of Bogota was now captured and Colombia became an independent country until later that year, Gran Colombia was founded.
• In Mexico, Indians and mestizos played key role in movements
• Creoles sided with Spain to avoid the lower class rebellious violence(until 1820)
Hidalgo, village priest believed in enlightenment ideas and marched with followers on Mexico City in 1810
• Was defeated by Spanish and creoles in 1811
Jose Maria Morelos takes over struggle and claims independence
1820 revolution in Spain (liberal gov. takeover) caused Mex. Creoles to fear loss of influence and went against Spain
• 1824 Mexican Republic established
Progression into Seeking Independence
1. Bourbon Reforms
a. created instability between colonists and rulers
b. made creoles feel unfairly treated (despite the relaxed trade restrictions) because it favored peninsulares
c. after Spain became closely associated with France (1795), Spanish crown relaxed the monopoly on Spanish trade which led colonists to pursue greater economic self determination
2. Peninsular War: Napoleon’s removal of the Bourbon dynasty, which created instability with Spanish monarch
3. Revolt of Tupac Amaru in Peru
4. New Granada Revolt
5. Brazil calls for Independence
Tupac Amaru wanted to implement complete indepence from Spain and wanted:
the expulsion of peninsular Spaniards
restore the Incan Empire
create harmony among mestizos, blacks, and natives
create an economic program that- suppressed the mita, created sales tax, eliminate great estates and servitude, and encourage trade
In New Granada: the spark of the revolution was the dramatic increase of taxes, which led the people to:
uprise in Socorro, where there was a large agricultural and manufacturing center
Revolt with idea that- 'Long live the king, down with evil government!'
Committees would come together to elect representatives to negotiate with Spanish commissioners.
3. & 4. cerca 1781
The Portuguese had high taxes on gold and other mining products that stirred the people into revolting against the authority in Brazil. Led by ideas of the Enlightenment, the upper class (who wanted freedom and political representation), the lower class (who wanted equal opportunities in politics and economics), and the slaves (who wanted freedom) came together to fight against Portugal.
"Liberator" of northern South America.
Goal: Unity for South America
Went to New Granada - Colombia - and received commission along with aprox. 200 soldiers to continue fighting for independence.
Started attacking royalist forces and fighting for true indep. in Venezuela.
1819: Crossed the Andes Mountains & helped with the battles in Ecuador and New Granada - where battles were successful & lead to steady growth of northern places becoming indep.
Final battle he fought was the Battle of Junin, the final liberation battle of Peru - Aug. 7th, 1823.
1819: Accepted leadership of Gran Colombia
Believed sovereignty belonged to majority who were non-white - a dominant class, which made Bolivar concerned.
Decided to establish a dictatorial system called "able depotism" - enforced strong executive to enforce legal equality.
As he was often away fighting battles throughout the continent, he needed to delegate authority to strong men whom he hoped would implement his reforms.
1828: An attempted assassination weakened him and the govt. had debt problems, civil discontent and a disorganized military.
1830: Denounced his presidency, and died of tuberculosis and exhaustion on Dec. 17th.
A wealthy creole Venezuelan that was orphaned early in life and educated by private tutors.
Lived and studied in Europe from 1804 to 1807, where he learned from the ideas of the Enlightenment and rejected the tyranny of Napoleon Bonaparte.
He toured the US and observed the constitutional democracy.
Returned to Venezuela, and helped mobilize the men that wanted independence from Spain.
Was later dispatched to Great Britain.
Returned to Venezuela and fought with the men in the civil war; supported the cause of indep. & soon exiled to Jamaica (1815).
From there, he sent a letter to the British asking for assistance in the battles for independence.
Also went to Haiti and was promised to receive future help from President Pétion.
José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras
"Liberator" of southern South America
Goal: Liberation of all of South America
Battle of Ayacucho
This had been the final independence movement.
December 9th, 1824- 6,000 patriots under Bolivar's lieutenant, Antonio Jose de Sucre, leadership had opened an attack on the Spanish Army.
Even being outnumbered, by 3,000 men, within a short time, the Spanish army had lost.
2,000 of their men, including the generals were taken in as prisoners. The remaining Spanish army were either dead or made to leave Peru and Bolivia.
By 1826, the last of the Spanish army were deported from the port in Lima, Peru.
Argentinean, but still sent to Spain in 1786 for formal education and military training.
Gained military experience as he was in the Spanish Army; In 1811, he resigned so he could return to Argentina after being in Europe for twenty-five years.
There, San Martin was given commission and created the cavalry corps of the Argentine Army.
First few battles were not successful - they were defeated in Upper Peru and some smaller regions.
San Martin came to the conclusion that the best way to attack the royalist forces would be in Chile, not Argentina. This required trekking for a while with the army.
Nonetheless, they were San Martin and his men were successful; they joined the Chilean patriots - who were being led by Bernardo O'Higgins - and defeated the Spanish at the battle of Chacabuco and liberated Chile in 1817.
San Martin was considered a victor throughout the continent
Helped make sure South America know it wasn't only him that liberated states - reminded people of O'Higgin's actions.
1822: Met Bolivar in Guayaquil, Ecuador.
This is the only time these leading figures ever meet.
Subject of meeting: remained a secret.
However, San Martin resigned his commission, and "retired", leaving Bolivar in charge of the final conquest of Peru.
1824: San Martin went to France
Battle of Carabobo
During Napoleon's reign, he declared his brother, Joseph, as king of Spain in 1808.
Because of Spain's unwant of a foreign ruler, there had been a huge disagreement in the people.
In 1810, Venezuela had declared its independence but was short-lived as the Spanish Monarchy had been restored.
June 24th, 1821- Bolivar had led a much larger army of 6,500 troops which included volunteers from the British Isles and Ireland.
Patriots won over the Royalists to the West of Caracas, finally ending the fight for independence.
1850: San Martin dies impoverished and in exile.
His remains were later transferred to Buenos Aires.
TOPIC REVIEW GAME
MAY THE BEST TEAM SUCCEED!
WHAT IS SAN MARTIN'S FULL NAME?
GIVE ONE REASON WHY THE LATIN AMERICANS WERE NOT IN FAVOR OF THE MONROE DOCTRINE.
WHAT WAS THE DATE OF PRESIDENT MONROE'S ADDRESS TO CONGRESS ?
WHERE IS GUAYAQUIL LOCATED?
GIVE ONE REASON WHY BOLIVAR & SAN MARTIN WERE KNOWN AS LEADING FIGURES OF THE INDEPENDENCE.
WHO FOUGHT ALONG THE SIDE OF SAN MARTIN IN CHILE?
WHAT YEAR DID THE US OFFICIALLY RECOGNIZE GRAN COLOMBIA AS A NEW NATION?
For this, your group must come up with the five
social groups and put them in order. The tip of
the pyramid is the highest social group while the base is the lowest.
WHAT COUNTRIES WERE GRAN COLOMBIA MADE OF?
WHO LED THE REBELS IN THE BATTLE OF AYACUCHO?
HOW MANY TIMES DID SAN MARIN AND BOLIVAR MEET?
WHEN AND WHERE DID SAN MARTIN DIE?
WHAT BATTLE OFFICIALLY ENDED THE CHILEAN'S STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE?
State the name of the dictatorial system that Bolivar established.
WHERE WAS THE BATTLE OF CHACABUCO?
WHERE WAS SAN MARTIN FROM?
STATE ONE OUTCOME OF THE INDEPENDENCE WARS.
WHO VOLUNTEERED TO FIGHT ALONGSIDE THE REBELS IN THE BATTLE OF CARABOBO?
WHO WAS RULER IN FRANCE?
WHEN WAS ARGENTINA LIBERATED?
NAME ONE OF THE THREE REVOLUTIONS THAT INFLUENCED THE INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA
WHAT SOCIAL GROUP WERE MADE UP OF SPANIARDS BORN IN LATIN AMERICA?