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Toxic Inorganic Compounds

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Logan MacKinnon

on 23 November 2013

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Transcript of Toxic Inorganic Compounds

Toxic Inorganic Compounds
Toxicity
Defined as:
The degree of strength of a poison
The state or quality of being poisonous
Cyanide
Hydrogen Cyanide
Liquid at room temperature, although very volatile (boils at 26C).
Rumored to have been used in war, although not confirmed
Reported to have been used by Iraq in the war against Iran and the Kurds in northern Iraq in the '80s.
During WW2, a form of HCN (Zyklon B) was used by Nazis in the gas chambers during Holocaust.
Found in some foods such as cassava.
Potassium Cyanide
Has appearance similar to grains of sugar.
Smells of almonds.
Used by Nazis
The Halogens
The halogens are the elements found in group 17.

All three states of matter can be found among the halogens at standard conditions.

All toxic in their own right!

Become less toxic as they get heavier!

Conclusions
Many elements and compounds are dangerous!

Stay away from radioactive elements and compounds!
Usually found bonded to other compounds or elements.
Common examples: Sodium cyanide (NaCN), hydrogren cyanide (HCN) and potassium cyanide (KCN).
Has high affinity for sulfur and certain metallic complexes, especially iron(III)!
Can cause death in minutes!!!
Fluorine
Extremely toxic!

Hydrofluoric acid = toxic!!!
Can penetrate skin and cause painful burns!

F2 can be lethal in amounts of 5-10 grams.
Chlorine
Highly toxic as well, but less than fluorine!

Breathing it in at:
3 ppm causes rapid toxic reaction
50 ppm highly dangerous
500 ppm for several minutes is lethal!

Once known as "bertholite" and was first used as weapon by Germany in WW1.

Reacts with mucous membranes to form HCl.
Bromine
Pure bromine is somewhat toxic, but less than both chlorine and fluorine.

100 mg = lethal


Iodine
Least toxic of the halogens!

Can irritate the lungs and eyes!

When taken orally, only 3 grams can be lethal!
Arsenic & Arsine
Arsenic
Can result in gastrointestinal effects and also cause central and peripheral nervous system disorders.

Doses of ~600 micrograms/kg body weight/day or higher has resulted in death.

Oral exposure at elevated levels has resulted in many issues such as anemia, gastrointestinal effects, skin lesions, and kidney or liver damage, to name a few.

Has been linked to cancer!
Arsine
One of the simplest known compounds of arsenic and is found naturally in the gas phase.

Acute inhalation exposure has been known to lead to death!

Main difference between arsenic compounds and arsine is the main route of exposure.
Radioactive Elements
Radioactive Decay
Alpha particles and decay

Beta particles and decay

Gamma particles and decay
"There is no safe dose of radiation." - Dr. Ian Fairlie
Radiation Poisoning
It's not like all the other toxins that have been talked about!

Radiation can actually destroy cells!

Different radioactive elements and compounds can do different damages to the body.
References
http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/9781420032123.ch11
http://jn.nutrition.org/content/137/12/2809.full
http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/arsenic.html
http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/army/mmcch/Cyanide.htm
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=19
http://www.opcw.org/about-chemical-weapons/types-of-chemical-agent/blood-agents/hydrogen-cyanide/
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ershdb/EmergencyResponseCard_29750037.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halogen
http://chemistry.about.com/od/imagesclipartstructures/ig/Chemical-Weapons/Chlorine-Gas.htm
http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/bromine/basics/facts.asp
http://radioactivepoison.blogspot.ca/
http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2011-03/fyi-how-does-nuclear-radiation-do-its-damage
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