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Gender

Gender in the Media
by

Alyssa Vermillion

on 6 May 2011

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Transcript of Gender

GENDER Disney and Gender Roles 1 Why It Matters These are our children! Children are inventive
and resourceful Exposure Females: Domestic features Physical appearence Dutiful Rescuer vs Rescued Males: Leadership Physical attraction Females: Domestic features Race/Background Hard-Working Males: Provider Leadership 3 4 5 2 Cinderella Princess and the Frog Pocahontas Impact of Disney “Hyper-sexual
philandering” Females: Care-giver Dutiful Self-less Males:
Aggressive Protector Teacher Construction of
Gender Roles Our future
generations Masculinity in Television 1 2
3 4 5 Types of Masculinity “Manly-Man” Masculinity Hyper Masculinity Feminine Masculinity Why it Matters Hegemonic Masculinity:


The norm of society

“Manly-Man” Masculinity Subordinate Masculinity:


Excluded in cultural norms

Hyper Masculinity

Feminine Masculinity Norm of society
Characteristics:

dominant

sexually aggressive

inalterably heterosexual
Comic relief
Characteristics:


No physical contact with other men

show feminine traits

flamboyant

promiscuous Hyper-virility
Characteristics:


flirts recklessly with disaster

puts himself through the
most trying ordeals

physically injures himself to
prove his masculinity. Stereotyping men

Not representing categories
fairly or accurately Gender in the Media: African-Americans 1 2 3 4 5 Who are these women? Existing research suggests that black women portrayal in media can be broken down into four dominant stereotypical images of Black women:

the mammy
the matriarch
the sexual siren
the welfare mother or queen Who picks how black women are portrayed in media? Why this?
Why not this?
Black men in Media Black men are. . .

Unwed fathers
Unemployed
Addicted to drugs
Involved in the criminal justice system
Death from suicide/ homicide
In part, our assumptions about "black male" capability derive from the representation of African American men in local and national media Is skin color determinant of life
chances for women? Effects of Skin Color For black women, the domination of physical aspects of beauty in women's definition and value render us invisible, partially erased, or obsessed, sometimes for a lifetime, since most of us lack the major talismans of Western beauty. Black women find themselves involved in a lifelong effort to self-define in a culture that provides them no positive reflection.
Skin color: History Literature on colonialism and slavery
focuses on the domination of African and indigenous peoples by Europeans
skin color is often discussed in terms of the creation of racial hierarchies

Light skin is associated with Europeans
assigned a higher status than darker skin
Dark skin is associated with Africans or indigenous people and is assigned a lower status Colorism Colorism vs Gender in the media Colorism affects attitudes about the self for both men and women, it appears that these effects are stronger for women than men.
Issues of skin color and physical attractiveness are closely linked

Expectations of physical attractiveness are applied more heavily to women across all cultures and color preference are more profound for Black women Several explanations are proffered for gender differences in self-esteem among Blacks.
1) One is that women are socialized to attend to evaluations of others and are vulnerable to negative appraisals. Women seek to validate their selves through appraisal from others more than men do. And the MEDIA has encouraged greater negative self-appraisals for dark-skinned women. 2) A second explanation is that colorism and its associated stressors are not the same for dark-skinned men and women. For men, stereotypes associated with perceived criminal activity and competence are associated with dark skin tone, while for women the issue is attractiveness.
Black women seeking to be perceived by others as feminine and attractive feel compelled to emulate whiteness, seen in MEDIA, through the use of skin bleaches, hair dyes, and straightening combs.

Men do not face the same hardship. As a matter of fact a "double standard" exists, in which African American men's attractiveness depends less on skin color than that of African American women
In contrast to dark-skinned women, dark-skinned male celebrities-such as Paul Robeson, Nat King Cole, Sidney Poitier, and more recently Michael Jordan- have long enjoyed mass mainstream appeal
Second, among magazine advertisements targeted to black readers, African American men typically are depicted as substantially darker than African American women.
6 Black Male Models
(notice anything?) and the winner is... 7 Dark-skinned women:

Unattractive
Undesired
Attitude
Loud
NOT PORTRAYED IN MEDIA! Dark-skinned men:

Criminal; reckless
Can be overcome through education
Strong
Masculine
Accepted by all shades of black
Portrayed in media; sports, movies, i.e Colorism Vs Gender in Media Media Stigmas The Media’s Social Construction of Gender: Editorial Cartoons 1 2 3 4 5 What are Editorial Cartoons? Gender & the 2008 Presidential Election Sociological Findings Sociological Findings Metaphor in Editorial Cartoons Attitudes reflected in news media coverage and opinion columns frequently translate to editorial cartoons
The nature of editorial cartoons
Found on the opinion pages of newspapers
Don’t have to be objective, often echo political views similar to columns, editorials, and coverage biases
More critical and satirical rather than admiring; because of this, a cartoonist’s favored political candidates and opinions are often absent in their work (Conners 2005)
Most editorial cartoonists are white, middle class males (Templin 1999)
The 2008 Presidential Election through Editorial Cartoons
Brand new research on the subject, most focusing on the portrayal of Democratic Presidential nominee Hillary Clinton and Republican Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin

Previous studies (Templin 1999, Edwards & Chen 2000) similarly analyzed the portrayal of the First Lady figure in editorial cartoons

Research looked for artist depiction of candidates upholding traditional gender norms or reversing them, appearing with respective spouses, and committing or being the victim of violence Studies on First Ladies found evidence of subjects performing domestic roles, often “silenced” behind husbands; research on Hillary Clinton suggests otherwise
Important to take her political history (First Lady, Clinton scandal, Senator) into account when looking at 2008’s cartoons on the Election
Overall, studies of these cartoons (2008) theorize that depictions of Clinton and Palin support gender stereotypes while also reflecting a public hesitancy – and even resentment – of female political leadership
Clinton’s portrayal in editorial cartoons

Racist
Bill Clinton’s puppet
Incompetent
Emotional / Upholding gender roles
Manly/ Defying gender roles
Ugly
Perpetrator of violence
Recipient of violence Palin’s portrayal in editorial cartoons:

Rouge/ Tough
Upholding gender roles/ Traditional domesticity
Ditzy/ Airhead/ Beauty queen Edwards (2010) suggests that different depictions of Clinton and Palin could be explained simply by difference in political personality
Edwards cites Anderson & Schuler (2005)’s analysis of “metaphor clusters” in analyzing editorial cartoons
The Pioneer:
common folks, grassroots The Puppet:
first ladies, dependent on spouses The Hostess/ Beauty Queen:
attractive, sex symbol, domesticity The Unruly Woman:
tough/rogue, cold blooded, bitchy

“metaphors build on existing realities (or stereotypes) about women, reinscribing and reinforcing them to contain and frequently limit female agency”
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