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PERSONALITY

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Rebecca Dance

on 24 October 2016

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Transcript of PERSONALITY

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
PERSONALITY
Trait Theory
Eysenck: personality is based on 3 primary traits (1952)
introversion/extroversion
neuroticism
psychoticism
Psychoanalytic Theory
Learning Theory
According to Skinner, behavior, then, is a product of what people do, and not what they think or feel.
Biological & Evolutionary Approach
Personality is genetically determined: individual appearance may affect how people view themselves and how they interact with others, both of which affect personality.
Socioclutural Perspective
Vygotsky - culture teaches people what to think, how to think, and gives them the means to think.
Measurement
Big 5 Personality Test
steers clear of tempermant & type and is geared to identify characteristics that are more desireable in a given situation
"The meeting of two personalities is like the contact of two chemical substances: If there is any reaction, both are transformed." -Carl Jung
Personality: Latin - persona = mask
The study of how & why people differ from one another
Why other people do what they do?
Why you do what you do?
Definition: personality is a combination of a person's behavioral, temperamental, emotional, & mental characteristics.
Personality thends to remain constant once it is developed
A mix between psychology & biology
Influences the way people think, feel, manage relationships, & social interactions
A distinguishing quality & an inherited characteristic
Introverts: focus on inner thoughts & experiences, quiet, maybe shy

Extroverts: focus their thoughts & experiences outward, outgoing, social

One the introvert/extrovert scale a low score = introverted and a high score = extroverted
Emotional Stability

Emotional & upset (neurotic) vs calm & level headed (emotionally stable)

High score = nervousness & emotional behavior
More likely to suffer from phobias, obsessions, compulsions, & depression
Focused on personality disorders i.e. a tendency toward psychosis & psychotic behavior (how a person deals with reality).

Low score = relatively normal
High score = antisocial behavior, hostility, lack of empathy (manipulative)
Middle score = eccentricity i.e. unconcerned about other's opinions, ignore norms, take risks for unusual interests
Abstractedness:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
grounded, practical, conventional imaginative,
impractical, absent minded

Apprehension:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
self-assured, secure, untroubled worried, insecure,
confident prone to guilt

Dominance:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
deferential, cooperative, forceful, assertive
humble, submissive, docile aggressive, comptetitive
accommodating stubborn, bossy

Emotional Stability:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
emotional reactivity, adaptive, mature, calm
less stability, easily upset

Liveliness:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
seriousness, introspection animated, spontaneous,
enthusiastic

Openness to Change:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
traditional, conservative liberal, flexible, freethinking

Perfectionism:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
lack of discipline, impulsive, organization,
lack of control compulsive, self-disciplined

Privateness:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
genuine, open,naive, unpretentious discreet, shrewd, worldly
Reasoning:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
concrete thinking high mental capacity
abstract thinking

Rule Consciousness:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
nonconforming, self-indulgent moralistic, dutiful

Self-Reliance:
low-----------------------------------------------------------------------high
group oriented, dependent solitary,
resourceful, self-sufficient

Sensitivity:
low-----------------------------------------------------------------------high
objective, tough, sensitive, sentimental,
self-reliant intuitive and refined

Social Boldness:
low--------------------------------------------------------------------------high
shy, timid, hesitant, uninhibited
easily intimidated

Tension:
low--------------------------------------------------------------------------high
relaxed, tranquil, patient energetic, impatient, driven,
easily frustrated

Vigilance:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
trusting, unsuspecting, suspicious, skeptical
accepting distrustful

Warmth:
low---------------------------------------------------------------------------high
reserved, impersonal, outgoing, kind,
distant, cool, detached, aloof easygoing, attentive
The Big 5
Extraversion: This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness.

Agreeableness: This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors.

Conscientiousness: Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors. Those high in conscientiousness tend to be organized and mindful of details.

Neuroticism: Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness.

Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests.

http://www.reocities.com/route66ok2000/chapter11/chapter11.html
Neurotic Anxiety - uncssly worried the ego will lose control of the id leading to punishment

Reality Anxiety - real event causes worry

Moral Anxiety - fear of violating your own moral principles
Denial - "I'm not angry with him."
Repression - "Oh, was that dentist appointment today?!"
Displacement - "I hate that secretary."
Sublimation - "I'm so angry I'm going to clean this whole house!"
Projection - "Gross, I cannot believe she picks her nose."
Intellecutalization - "This situation reminds me of how Nietzsche
said that anger is ontological despair."
Rationalization - "He's so critical because he's trying to help us do
our best."
Regression - "Let's shoot spitballs!"
Reaction Formation - "I think he's really great!"
Acting out
Affiliation
Aim inhibition
Altruism
Avoidance
Compensation
Humor
Passive-aggression
Psychosexual Stages (libido)
Oral: suck: weaning (trust)
Anal: bladder & bowel: training (independence)
Phallic: genitals: Oedipus complex (identity)
Latent: nada
Genital: intercourse: intimacy
Stage: behavior: conflict
tabula rasa - all behavior is learned through exposure to and interaction with the environment: personality is molded
Bandura, however, thought social events were as importnat as biological events.
Social Learning Theory
an observable change in behavior does not always reflect learning
Humanistic Theory
Carl Rogers: Person-centered Therapy
Unconditional positive regard: people are basically good
Nonjudgmental attitude: lack of personal judgement
Disclosure: the sharing of personal information
Reflection: mirroring a person's thoughts and feelings
Twin Studies/ Adopted Siblings
Individualism - people strive to function as autonomous and unique selves

Collectivism - people are integrated into, and become part of, a group as whole.
assimilating collective goals and personal goals.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
I see myself as:
Open to new experiences, complex. (O)
Dependable, self-disciplined. (C)
Extraverted, enthusiastic. (E)
Sympathetic, warm. (A)
Calm, emotionally stable. (ES)
http://www.colorquiz.com/
http://www.outofservice.com/bigfive/
http://similarminds.com/cattell-16-factor.html
http://similarminds.com/freud.html
https://www.psychologistworld.com/tests/jung-archetype-quiz.php
http://similarminds.com/maslow.html
Most aligned with the Behaviorists: Eysenck
Abram Maslow:
Hierarchy of Needs
http://similarminds.com/eysenck.html

Examples
(from Ozer & Benet-Martinez, 2006; Roberts et al.,
2007; Mehl, Gosling, & Pennebaker, 2006):

a. Extroversion predicts talking, happiness, social status, volunteerism.

b. Agreeableness predicts swearing less, being less likely to divorce, volunteerism, less criminal behavior.

c. Conscientiousness predicts occupational success, college GPA, less drug use, being less likely to divorce.

d. Emotional stability predicts less depression, beingless likely to divorce and less likely to fight in romantic relationships.

e. Openness to experience predicts more traveling/studying abroad and being more likely to vote for liberal candidates/causes and choose artistic careers.

Does Personality Predict Behavior?
Full transcript