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Examining Figurative Language

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sarah dianne perryman

on 14 September 2014

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Transcript of Examining Figurative Language

“I have, myself, full confidence that if all do their duty, if nothing is neglected, and if the best arrangements are made, as they are being made, we shall prove ourselves once again able to defend our Island home, to ride out the storm of war, and to outlive the menace of tyranny, if necessary for years, if necessary alone...
We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France,
we shall fight on the seas and oceans,
we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be,
we shall fight on the beaches,
we shall fight on the landing grounds,
we shall fight in the fields and in the streets,
we shall fight in the hills;
we shall never surrender, and even if, which I do not for a moment believe, this Island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle, until, in God’s good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old.”
For the Purposes of this Assignment, we will examine Winston Churchill's "We Will Fight" Speech
Going Beneath the Surface
Examining Writing For Figurative Language, Connotation, Mood, and Tone
Rhetorical Syntax:
-
Simile
:
a comparison using 'like' or 'as'
-
Metaphor
: a comparison that does not use like or as; usually says one thing "is" something else
-
Alliteration
: when the beginning sounds of words is the same (slippery, slimy snake)
-
Personification
: giving a nonhuman object a human quality (the happy tree)
-
Onomatopoeia
: when a word has a sound that goes with it (bzzzz, shhhh, ouch)
-
Parallel Structure
:
refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence. It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed or similarly phrased
-
Parallelism:
two or more words or phrases stand in identical relationship; pleasant to hear; economical
-
Anaphora:

repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses (fight..., fight...)
-
Epistrophe:
repetition of a word or phrase at the end of successive clauses (...fight, ...fight)
-
Juxtaposition:

a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise
-
Repetition:

A device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once for the purpose of enhancing rhythm and creating emphasis
Let's go back to our original speech:
First we should separate the sentences with
dashes
(
/
)
As you can see, this excerpt is made up of only two Long and Involved

sentences; he uses all of the rhetorical structures (parallel structure, anaphora, parallelism, epistrophe, juxtaposition).
Next, we should look for
words
or
phrases
that are used consistently throughout the piece.
For single word
repetition,
I highlighted the word in
blue.
For phrases that started with the same words-
anaphora
- that built into
parallel structure
, I highlighted them in
green.
Connotation
http://quizlet.com/2696323/analyzing-syntax-flash-cards/
http://www.presentationmagazine.com/winston-churchill-speech-we-shall-fight-them-on-the-beaches-8003.htm
Connotation is, "an association or idea suggested by a word or phrase; implication". Basically, connotation is the "impression" of a word; what we think it means.
Let's go back to our original speech:
“I have, myself, full confidence that
if
all do their duty,
if
nothing is neglected, and
if
the best arrangements are made, as they are being made,
we shall

prove
ourselves once again able
to defend our Island home
,
to ride out the storm of war
, and
to outlive the menace of tyranny
,
if
necessary for years,
if
necessary alone
/
...
We shall

go
on to the end, we shall fight in France,
we shall fight
on the seas and oceans,
we shall fight
with growing confidence and growing strength in the air,
we shall

defend
our Island, whatever the cost may be,
we shall fight
on the beaches,
we shall fight
on the landing grounds,
we shall fight
in the fields and in the streets,
we shall fight
in the hills;
we shall never surrender
, and even
if,
which I do not for a moment believe, this Island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle, until, in God’s good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old.
/

Now, let's go through the speech looking for
words that convey strong emotion
, or go against their dictionary definition (denotation).
“I have, myself,
full confidence
that if all do their duty, if nothing is neglected, and if the
best arrangements are made
, as they are being made, we shall
prove ourselves
once again able to
defend
our Island home, to
ride out the storm
of war, and to
outlive
the
menace of tyranny
, if necessary for years,
if necessary alone
...
We shall go on
to the end
, we shall
fight
in France,
we shall fight on the seas and oceans,
we shall fight with
growing confidence
and
growing strength
in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the
cost
may be,
we shall fight on the beaches,
we shall fight on the landing grounds,
we shall fight in the fields and in the streets,
we shall fight in the hills;
we shall
never surrender
, and even if, which I do not for a moment
believe,
this Island or a large part of it were
subjugated
and
starving,
then our Empire beyond the seas,
armed
and
guarded
by the British Fleet, would
carry on the struggle,
until, in
God’s good time
, the New World, with all its
power and might
, steps forth to the
rescue
and the
liberation
of the old.”
Tone and Mood
Tone is simply the author’s attitude toward the subject. You can recognize the tone/attitude by the
language/word choices the author uses. The author’s language will reveal his/her perspective/opinion (positive/negative) about the subject. Tone must be inferred through the use of descriptive words.
Diction–
writer’s word choice (denotation vs.
connotation)
Imagery–
what picture does the writing bring to
mind? (colors, weather, use of light and
darkness)
Characterization–
what message is the writer
sending through the characters’ actions,
reactions, thoughts, speech, physical
description?
Plot–
what feelings are created through
different events?
Theme-
author's message; what is the main point?
Mood is the overall feelings or emotions that
are created IN THE READER. Atmosphere is another word for mood. It’s creating a sense of expectation about what is to follow. The “power of the pen” can move mountains. Authors “move” their readers’ moods through their choice of words and level of detail.
Tone Words:
affectionate/loving
compassionate
anxious/nervous
creepy
frustrated
funny
somber
Mood Words:
bitter
serious
humorous
sympathetic
mysterious
suspenseful
romantic
Let's go back to our original speech:
“I have, myself, full confidence that if all
do their duty
, if
nothing is neglected
, and if the
best arrangements are made
, as they are being made, we shall
prove ourselves
once again able to
defend
our Island
home,
to
ride out the storm
of war, and to
outlive
the menace of tyranny, if necessary for years, if necessary
alone...
We shall go on to
the end
, we shall fight in France,
we shall fight on the seas and oceans,
we shall fight with
growing confidence and growing strength
in the air, we shall
defend
our Island,
whatever the cost
may be,
we shall fight on the beaches,
we shall fight on the landing grounds,
we shall fight in the fields and in the streets,
we shall fight in the hills;
we shall
never surrender
, and even if, which I do not for a moment believe, this Island or a large part of it were
subjugated and starving
, then our Empire beyond the seas,
armed
and
guarded
by the British Fleet, would
carry on the struggle
, until, in
God’s good time
, the New World, with all its
power and might
, steps forth to the
rescue and the liberation
of the old.”
The tone of this speech, is one of honor, courage, resilience, and pride. He is saying that the British Isle will meet all obstacles it might face, and no matter the circumstances, they will come out victorious.
The mood Churchill is trying to create, is one of unity, fortitude, and confidence in their country and themselves.
Full transcript